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THE 



paltEontographical society. 



INSTITUTED MDCCCXLVII. 



LONDON 



MDCCCLIII. 



THE 



PAL.EONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 



INSTITUTED MDCCCXLVII. 



VOLUME FOE 1909. 



LONDON 



MDCCCCIX. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE FOSSIL REMAINS OF MOLLUSCA FOUND IN 
THE CHALK OF ENGLAND: CEPHALOPODA. 



ORDER OF BINDING AND DATES OF PUBLICATION, 



PAGES 


PLATES 


ISSUED IN VOL. 
FOR TEAK 


PUBLISHED 


Geuei'cil Title-page and ludex 





1909 


December, 1909 


1—26 


I— X 


1853 


December, 1853 


27—36 


XI— XVI 


1854 


May, 1855 


37—68 


xvn— XXVII 


1855 


February, 1857 



r 



DESCRIPTION 



FOSSIL REMAINS OF MOLLUSCA 



FOUND IN THE 



CHALK OF ENGLAND. 



CEPHALOPODA. 



DANIEL SHARPE, pres. geol. soc, F.E. ct G.s. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR THE PAL^ONTOaRAPHICAL SOCIETY 

1853—1909. 



PRINTED BY ADLARI) AND SON. LONDON AND DOItKINU 









jNiVi 



INDEX. 



Actiuocamax verus . . . 
Ammonites ... 

— alternatus 



23 



austeui . . . 

bravaisiauus 

brongniartii 

bunbui'iautis 

caroliuus , . . 

catinus . . . 

cenomanensis 

clnct^^s . . . 

complauatus 

consobriuus 

coupei 

— var. inflata 

— var. tuberculata 



cunningtoni 

curvatus ... 

deveriauus 

euomplialus 

f alcatus . . . 

fei'audianus 

fissicostatus 

gentoni . . . 

goUevillensis 

goupiliauus 

griffitliii ... 

hippocastanum 

ieeuicus . . . 

jukesii 

largilliertianus 

laticlavitis 

leptonema 

leptophjllus . 

lewesiensis 

mautelli . . . 

milletianus 



PAGE 

6 
. 17 

... 32 

. 28 ; xii, 1, 2 
52 ; xxiii, 7-9 
... 22 
25 ; ix, 8 
... 27 
, 29 ; xiii, 1 
. 37 ; xvii, 1 
25 ; ix, 2 
. 19 ; vii, 1-3 
... 45 
viii, 1-4, ix, 1 
. 24; viii, 1 
24 ; viii, 2, 4, 
ix, 1 

35 ; XV, 2 

21,49; vii, 8, 9, xxiii, 1 

43 ; xix, 5 

... 31 ; xiii, 4 

21 ; vii, 5-9 ; 49 

... 51 ; xxiii, 6 

30 

39 

... 48 ; xvii, 2 

...38; xvii, 5,6 

28; xi, 3 

.37; xvii, 2-4 

43 ; xix, 4 

... 53 ; xxiii, 11 

19 

... 31; xiv, 1 

... 32; xiv, 3 

xxi, 2, xxii, 1 

46, 48 ; xxi, 1 

39, 40 ; xviii, 4-7 

39 



48 



Ammouites navicularis 
obtectus ... 



Aptychus 



octo-sulcatus 

oldhami ... 

peramplus 

planulatus 

portlocki ... 

prosperianus 

ramsa^'anus 

renauxiauus 

renevieri ... 

rhotomageusis .. 

rusticus ... 

salteri 

saxbii 

sussexiensis 

variaus ... 

— var. costata 



PAGE 

39 ; xviii, 1-3, 5, 8 
... 20; vii, 4 
42 ; xix, 3 
32 ; xiv, 2 
... 26; X, 1-3 
...29; xii, 3,4 
30 ; xiii, 2, 3 

26 

... 51 ; xxiii, 4 

41 ; xix, 2 

44 ; XX, 2 

... 33 ; xvi, 1-4 

44; XX, 1 

50 ; xxiii, 3, 5 

... 45; XX, 3 

33, 34 ; XV, 1 

22, 23 ; viii, 5-10 

23 ; viii, 9 



— var. intermedia 22, 23 ; viii, 7 

— var. subplana 22, 23 ; viii, 10 

— var. subtuberculata 22 ; viii, 

5, 6, 8 

— var. tuberculata 
vectensis ... 



velledae , . . 
vielbancii 
wiestii 
wiltonensis 
woollgari . . . 

goUevillensis 

icenicus 

leptophyllus 

peramplus... 

portlocki . . . 

ru^osus 



39 



56 



... 23 

46 ; XX, 4 

xvii, 7, xix, 6 

37 

... 47; xxi, 3 
...53 ; xxiii, 10 
27, 37; xi, 1,2 

53 

... 56 ; xxiv, 5 
... 57 ; xxiv, 7 
... 55 ; xxiv, 1 
... 58; xxiv, 10 
xxiv, 2, 3, 4, 6 ? 
57; xxiv, 8, 9 



Belemnitella 



70 FOSSIL REMAINS OF MOLLUSCA IN CHALK OF ENGLAND. 







PAGE 








PAGE 


Belemnitella lanceolata 


7; 


i, 4-6 


Nautilus 


laevigatus . . . 




... 11; ii, 1,2 


— mucrouata 


6; 


i, 1-3 


— 


largilliertianus 




... 16; vi, 1, 2 


— — var. fusiforme 


7 


— 


ueocomiensis 




15; V, 3 


— plena 


.. 9; i, 


12-16 


— 


pseudo-elegans 




13; iv, 2 


— quadrata 


... 8: i 


, 7-11 


— 


radiatus 




... 14; V, 1,2 


— vera 




9 


— 


sowerbvanus 




16 


Belemuites 




3 


— 


undulatus . . . 




15; V, 4 


— electriuus 




6 










— granulatus 




8 


Trigonellites ... 




53 


— lanceolatus 




7,9 


Turrilites 




59 


— listeri 




3 


— 


bechii 




...&&; xxvi, 13 


— minimus ... 




3 


— 


bergeri 




65 ; xxvi, 9-11 


— mucronatus 




6, 7 


— 


bif rons 




Q7 ; xxvii, 6, 7 


pleuns 




9 


— 


costatus . . . 


&& ; xxvii, 1-5, 15, 16 


— quadratus 




8 




desnoyersi 




64 


— ultimus ... 


3 


i, 17 


— 


giganteus ... 




61 


Belenmon pustulatiim 




8 


— 


gravesianus 
mantelli . . . 


62; 


xxv, 7, xxvi, 14 
...63; xxv, 5,6 


Nautilus 




10 


— 


morrisii 




65 ; xxvi, 4^8 


— archiacianus 




11 


— 


puzosianus 




...68; xxvii, 11 


— compressus ... 




17 


— 


scbeucbzerianus 




64 ; xxvi, 1-3 


— deslongcbampsinnus 


... 12; iii, 1,2 


— 


triplicatus... 




m 


— elegans 


12 ; iii. 3 


,iv, 1 


— 


tuberculatus 61,62; xxv 


1-4, xxvi, 15, 16 


— expansus 


11; 


ii, 3-5 


— 


undulatus . . . 




64 


— fittoni 


.. 17 


; vi, 4 


— 


varicosa 




61 


— fleuriausianus 


16 


; vi, 3 


— 


wiestii 


... &"? 


; xxvii, 8, 9, 17 



ADLARI) AND SON, IMPR., LONDON AND DORKING. 



DESCRIPTION 



FOSSIL REMAINS OF MOLLUSCA 



FOUND IN THE 



CHALK OF ENGLAND. 



BY 

DANIEL SHAEPE, F.E.G. & L.S. 



PART I. 
CEPHALOPODA. 



LONDON : 

PRINTED FOR THE PAL^^ONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 
1853. 



C. AND J. ADLARD, PRrNTERS, BARTHOLOMEW CLOSF.. 



LIST 



COUNCIL, SECRETARIES, AND MEMBERS 



PAL^ONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, 

1859. 



W. J. HAMILTON, Esq., F.R.S., Foh. Szc, G.S., &c. 



Council. 



PROF. G. BUSK, F.K.S., L.S., G.S., &c. 

W. B. CARPENTER, M.D., F.R.S., L.S., G.S., &c. 

THOMAS DAVIDSON, Esq., F.R.S., G.S., &c. 

F. E. EDWARDS, Esq. 

ROBERT HUDSON, Esq., F.R.S., L.S., G.S., &c. 

J. G. JEFFREY, Esq., F.R.S., L.S., &c. 

ROBERT McANDREW, Esq., F.R.S., L.S., &c. 

PROF. OWEN, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., L.S., G.S.. &c. 



JOHN PICKERING, Esq. 

MAJOR-GEN. PORTLOCK, F.R.S., V.P. G.S., &c. 

JOSEPH PRESTWICH, Esq , F.RS., Tii£as.G.S.,&c. 

J. W. SALTER, Esq., F.G.S., &c. 

PROF. TENNANT, F.G.S., &c. 

S. L. WARING, Esq. 

N. T. WETHERELL, Esq., M.R.C.S. 

REV. THOMAS W^ILTSHIRE, M.A., FG.S., &c. 



Alton . . 
Bath . . 

Binningbam 

Blandford . 

Bolton . . 

Brighton . 

Bristol . . 

Cambridge 

Charmouth . 

Cheltenham 

Cirencester 

Colchester 

Deddington 

Devizes 

Dublin . 

Dudley . 

Edinburgh 

Glasgow 
Gloucester 



CrtaSurtr. 

SEARLES WOOD, Esq., F.G.S., &c., Ticickenham, Surrey, S.W. 

f^onorarp ^trrttarw. 
J. S. BOWERBANK, LL.D., F.R.S., L.S., G.S., &c., 3, Highbury Grove, Mlngton, N. 

local ^ttrctarttiS. 



William Curtis, Jun., Esq. 
, Wm. Walton, Esq., 17, Grosvenor Place. 
/Wm. Mathews, Esq., Jan., F.G.S., 

'- Edgbaston. 
, W. Shipp, Esq. 

r Matthew Dawes, Esq., F.G.S., &c., 

\ Westbrook. 
. Hexrt Catt, Esq. 
, WiLLiA^i Sakdzrs, Esq., F.G.S., &c. 
. James Carter, Esq. 
. Hexry Norris, Esq., F.R.C.S. 
. Thomas Wright, M.D., F.G.S., &c. 
. Prof. James Bcckman, F.G.S., &c. 
. JoHX Brown, Esq., F.G.S., &c., Stanway. 
. Ch.arles Faulkner, Esq., F.G.S., &c. 
. William Cunnington, Esq., F.G.S., &c. 
. Gilbert Sanders, Esq., 2, Foster Place. 
. John Gray, Esq., Hagley. 

j-Prof. Balfour, F.R.S., L.S., &c., 2, 
' [ Belletue Crescent. 

. James P. Fraser, Esq.,F.G.S., City Bank. 
John W. Wilton, Esq. 



Guildford . . R.Godwin Austen, Esq. ,F..R.S.,G.S.,&c. 

Huddersfield . Robert Welsh, Esq. 

Leeds . . . Thom-as Nunneley, Esq., F.R.C.S.E. 

Leicester . . James Plant, Esq. 

Market Rasen Rev. W. W. Cooper. 

Newcastle -on- \ 

Tvne J ♦* ^^^^^ Kell, Esq., Gateshead. 

Norwich . . Robert Fitch, Esq., F.G.S., &c. 

Oxford . . . Prof.Jn.Phillips,M.A.,F.R.S.,G.S.,&c. 

Paris . . . Prof. M. Edwards, Jarditi des Plantes. 

Plymouth . . J. H. Fuge, Esq., F.R.C.S.E., &c. 

Portsmouth . W. A. Rapek, M.D. 

Richmond, Yorks. Edward Wood, Esq., F.G.S.,F.R.S.L.&c. 

Scarborough . John Leckenby, Esq., F.G.S., &c. 

Southampton . R. Tovey, Esq., 9, Waterloo Place. 

Stamford . . John F. Bentley, Esq. 

Stowmaiket C. R. Bree, Esq. 

Torquay . . William Pengelly, Esq., F.G.S., &c. 

AVolverhampton Henry Beckett, Esq., Church Street. 

Yarmouth . . C. B. Rose, Esq., F.G.S., &c. 

York . . . Edw. Charleswobth, Esq., F.G.S., &c. 



LAWS. 



That the Society formed be called the Palaeontographical Society, and that it shall have 
for its objects the illustration and description of British Fossil Organic Remains. 

II. 

Each Subscriber of One Guinea, or more, annually, shall be considered a Member of the 
Society. Such subscription to be paid in advance, and shall be due on the 1st day of January, 
1847, and each succeeding year. 

III. 

A Member shall, for each Guinea subscribed annually, be entitled to one copy of every 
publication issued by the Society, for the year to which his subscription relates. But no 
Member shall be entitled to receive his copy, or copies, until his subscription has been paid. 

IV. 

The number of copies of the Society's publications shall be limited to the number of 
Members, unless otherwise directed by the Council. 



The business of the Society shall be conducted by a President, Treasurer, Hon. Secretary, 
and a Council of sixteen Members, who shall be elected at a General Meeting of the Members, 
to be held annually in London. 

VI. 

The accounts of the receipt and expenditure of the Society shall be examined annually by 
two Auditors appointed by the Council ; the Auditors to be Members of the Society, who are 
not Members of the Council, and their statement shall be circulated among the subscribers. 

VII. 

That the Editors of works published by the Society be entitled to a number of copies of 
their works, not exceeding twenty-five, as may be decided by the Council. 



REGULATIONS FOR THE DELIVERY OF BOOKS. 



They are delivered, free of expense, within three miles of the General Post Office, London. 

They are sent to any place in England, beyond the distance of three miles from the 
General Post Office, by any conveyance a Member may puiut out. In this case the parcels are 
booked at the expense of the Society, but the carriage must be paid by the Member to whom 
they are sent. 

They are delivered, free of expense, at any place in London which a Member, resident in 
the country, may name. 

They are sent to any of the Hon. Local Secretaries of the Society, each Member being 
expected to pay the Local Secretary a due share of the carriage of the parcel in which the 
books are sent. 

Any number of Country Members may unite to have their books sent in one parcel to 
any address they may name. In this case they are requested to depute one of their number to 
transmit to the Secretary for London a list of the names of those whose books are to be 
included in the same parcel. 

Those Members who wish their books to be included in any of the parcels to Local 
Secretaries are requested to send in their names (with their Christian name in full) and 
particular address to the various Local Secretaries, who are respectfully requested to forward 
to the Secretary for London an accurate list of all such names, with as little delay as possible. 

Unless intimation to the contrary be given to the Secretary for London, the future 
deliveries will be made in accordance with the delivery of the first volume. 

The Council, desirous of imposing as little trouble as possible upon the Local Secretaries, 
particularly request that all subscriptions be paid by Members directly to the Treasurer, 
Searles Wood, Esq., Twickenham, Surrey, by Post Office Order on the Twickenham Office, 
or by Cheque on a London Banker. And as there is no other capital for conducting the 
aflFairs of the Society than the Subscriptions paid in advance, the Country Members are 
respectfully reminded that an early remittance is absolutely necessary. 

As the quantity of plates and letterpress to be delivered to the Subscribers annually will 
be increased in proportion to the extension of the Society, the Members are respectfully urged 
to obtain as many new Subscribers, and at as early a period, as possible. 

Gentlemen desirous of forwarding the objects of the Society, may be provided with 
circulars for distribution by application to the Hon. Secretary. 



LIST OE MEMBEES. 



HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE CONSORT. 



Abich, Dr. H. Conseiller d'Etat et Membre 

de I'Academie Imperial des Sciences de 

St. Petersburg, For. M.G.S. 
Adam, Thomas, Esq. Halifax. 
Addison, Rev. John, Weymouth. 
Adlard, J. E. Esq. Bartholomew-close. 
Agnew, Lady, Moray-place, Edinburgh. 
AUingham, William, Esq. Reigate. 
Ansted, Prof., M.A., F.R.S., G.S., &c., 

Bon Air, St. Martin's, Guernsey. 
Aplin, C. d'Oyley, H. Esq. Port Phillip, 

Australia. 
Archaeological and Natural History Society, 

Taunton. 
Arlidge, John T., A.B., &c. Shirley Park, 

Croydon. 
Asher, A. Esq. Berlin. 
Ashley, J. M. Esq. 
Ashmolean Society, Oxford (per Rev. E. 

Hill, Christchurch). 
Athenaeum Library, Liverpool. 
Aveline, W. T., Esq., F.G.S., Museum of 

Practical Geology, Jermyn-street. 
Austen, R. A. Godwin, Esq., B.A., F.R.S., 

G.S. &c., Chilworth Manor, Guildford, 

Surrey. 
Austin, Miss Helena E., at Rev. H. E. 

Howes, Frenchay, near Hambrook, 

Bristol. 
Austen, Rev. J. H., M.A., F.G.S., &c. 

Ensbury House, Wiraborne. 



Babington, C. C. Esq. M.A., L.S., F.G.S. &c. 

St. John's College, Cambridge. 
Backhouse, Wm. Esq. Conset Iron Works, 

Shotley Bridge, near Gateshead, Tyne. 



Bagshaw, Miss, Stanley Villa, Lansdown, 
Cheltenham. 

Baily, Wm. M., Esq., F.G.S. Geological 
Survey, Dublin. 

Baines, Samuel, Esq. Brighouse, near 
Huddersfield. 

Balfour, Prof., F.R.S.. L.S. &c. Edinburgli. 

Balliere, H. Esq. 219, Regent-street. 

Balme, E. B. Wheatley, Esq. Cotewall, 
Mirfield, Yorkshire. 

Barclay, Joseph G.Esq. 54, Lombard-street. 

Barrett, Rev. A. North Cheam House, Surrey. 

Barr, W. R. Esq. Park Mills, Stockport. 

Barthes, Lowell, and Co. Gt. ^larlborough-st. 

Bartlett, M. Esq. Boston, U. S. 

Bathuist, Rev. W^ H., Darley Dale, Matlock. 

Bass, Isaac Gray, Esq. Brighton. 

Battersby, Robert, M.D. Torquay. 

Beaufoy, George, Esq. South Lambeth. 

Beckett, Henry, Esq. Church- street, Wol- 
vei'hampton. 

Belfast Library. 

Bell, Prof., F.R.S., Pres. L.S., F.G.S. ike. 
17, New Broad-street, City. 

Bell, Rev. Charles, Hampstead. 

Bennett, William, Esq. 5, Bishopsgate 
Without. 

Benson, Starling, Esq. Swansea. 

Bentley, J. F. Esq. Stamford, Lincolnshire. 

Bernard, Ralph M. Esq. Victoria Square, 
CHfton. 

Bewley, John, Esq. l6, Brunswick Buildings, 
Liverpool. 

Bidwell, Henry, M.D. Albrighton, Wolver- 
hampton. 

Bilke, Edward, Esq. F.G.S., &c., 12, Stam- 
ford-street. 



VI 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Binney,E.W., Esq , F.R.S.,G.S., Manchester. 
Binyon, T. Esq. St. Ann's-square, Man- 
chester. 
Birminij^ham Old Library, Union-street. 
Blaclvburne, John George, Esq., F.G.S., 

Mining Engineer, Oldham. 
Blackie, W. G. Esq. Ph. D., F.R.G.S., &c., 

36, Frederick-street, Glasgow. 
Blackwell, S. H. Esq., F.G.S., &c. Dudley. 
Blackwell, Thos. E., F.G S., &c., 65, Pul- 

teney-street, Bath. 
Bladon, James, Esq. Pontypool. 
Blake, VV. Esq. Bishop's Hall, Taunton. 
Blount, J. H. Esq. M.B. 53, Clifton-road 

East, St. John's Wood. 
Boase, H. S., M.D., F.R.S., G.S., &c. 

Claverhouse, near Dundee. 
Bohn, Henry, Esq. 4, York-street, Covent- 

garden. 
Bonney, Rev. George, St. Peter's College, 

AVestrainster. 
Booth, Prof., United States. 
Borradaile, Charles, Esq. Upper Tooting. 
Bosquet, M., Pharmacien, Maaestricht. 
Botfield, Beriah, Esq. M.P., F.R.S., L.S., 

G.S., &c., 5, Grosvenor Square. 
Bouchard - Chantereaux, Mons. President 
de I'Administration du Museum, Bou- 
logne. 
Bower, Rev. E., Closworth, near Yeovil. 
Bowerbank, J. S., LL.D., F.R.S., L.S., G.S. 

&c., 3, Highbury-grove, l>i.,Hon. Sec. 
Bradley, Lonsdale, Esq., F.G.S., &c., Prior 

House, Richmond, Yorkshire. 
Brady, Right Hon. M., Dublin. 
Brady, Antonio, Esq. Stratford, Essex, and 

Admiralty Office, Somerset House. 
Braikenridge, Rev. G. AY., F.L.S., G.S. &c. 

Clevedon, near Bristol. 
Bramley, Lawrence, Esq. Halifax. 
Brassey, Thos. Esq. jun. 36, Lowndes-sq. 
Braven'ler, J.C. Esq. ,F.S.G.,&c,, Cirencester. 
Bree, C R. Esq., 130, Princes Street, Edin- 
burgh. 
Brio-gs, Major-General, F.R.S., G.S., &c. 

Oriental Club, Hanover-square. 
Briggs, Miss Ellen, 3, Arlington-street. 
Brighton and Sussex Natural History 
Society, T. B. Home, Esq. 7, Pavilion 
Parade. 



Bristow, Henry W. Esq, F.G.S. &c. Museum 

of Practical Geology. 
British Museum, Departmental Minera- 

logical and Geological Library. 
Broome, C. E. Esq. M.A., &c., Elmhurst, 

Batheaston, Bath. 
Brown, John, Esq. F.G.S., &c., Barnsly. 
Brown, Isaac, Esq. Ackworth. 
Brown, John, Esq. F.G.S., &c., Stanway, 

near Colchester. 
Brown, T. C. Esq. Cirencester. 
Browne, Charles J. P. Esq. Bridgewater. 
Browne, Wm. Meredith, Esq. Westminster 

Fire Office, King-street, Covent-garden. 
Bruce, Rev. J. C, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Brunei, L K. Esq. F.R.S., G.S., &c., 18, 

Duke-street, Westminster. 
Bryson, Alexander, Esq. Edinburgh. 
Buckman, Prof. James, F.G.S., &c. Royal 

Agricultural College, Cirencester. 
Bullock, Henry, Esq. 15, Cumberland-street, 

Bryanstone-square. 
Bunbury, E. H. Esq. F.G.S. &c. 15, Jermyn- 

street, Piccadilly. 
Busk, Professor G., F.R.S., L.S., G.S., 15, 

Harley-street, Cavendish-square. 
Butcher, Henry J. Esq. Devizes. 
Byerley, Isaac, Esq. Upton, Birkenhead. 

Caird, H. W. Esq. Albury Park, Guildford. 

Calvert, John, Esq. 189, Strand. 

Cambridge University Library (per Rev. 
James Power). 

Cann, James M. Esq. 5, Church-street, 
Edge-hill, Liverpool. 

Carpenter, W. B. M.D. F.R.S., L.S., 
G.S., &c., Univei-sity Hall, Gordon- 
square. 

Carditi Literary and Scientific Institution. 

Carter, James, Esq. 30, Petty Cury, Cam- 
bridge. 

Carter, R. Esq. Halifax. 

Carter, Rev. W. A. Eton College. 

Cams, Dr. Victor, Leipzig, per Williams 
and Norgate, 14, Henrietta-st., Covent- 
garden. 

Catt, Henry, Esq. West-street, Brighton. 

Cautley, Colonel Sir Proby T., F.R.S., G.S., 
&c., 31, Sackville-street, Piccadilly. 



LIST OF I\IEMBERS. 



Ml 



Cavill, Edmund, Esq. F.G.S. Saxmundham. 

Cawdor, The Earl of, Trustee, British Museum, 
F.R.S., G.S., &c., 74, South Audley- 
street. 

Chambers, Robert, Esq. F.R.S.E., G.S., &c. 
Edinburgh. 

Chapman, Thomas, Esq. F.G.S., 23, New- 
street, Spring-gardens. 

Charlesworth, Edward, Esq. F.G.S., &c. 
York. 

Chariton, E., M.D. 7, Eldon-square, New- 
castie-on-Tyne. 

Chippenham Literary and Scientific Insti- 
tution. 

Chisholme, W. Esq. 

Cholmeley, Mrs. Octavia, The Priory, Stroud, 
Gloucester. 

Christy, Henry, Esq., F.G.S., &c., 103, 
Victoria-street, Westminster. 

Clabon, J. M. Esq., F.G.S., &c., 21, Great 
George-street. 

Clapham, Thos. Richard, Esq. Austwick 
Hall, near Settle. 

Clark, Edward, Esq. F.G.S., &c., Sandgate, 
Kent. 

Clark, Henry, M.D. Midland House, South- 
ampton. 

Clark, Rev. Samuel, Training Institution, 
Battersea. 

Clark, Rev. Francis F., B.A. Malpas, near 
Newport, Monmouthshire. 

Clark, Prof. W., F.R.S., G.S., &c., Cam- 
bridge. 

Clarke, Robert, Esq. Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S. 

Clarke, Rev. W. B., F.G.S., &c., St. Leo- 
nard's, near Sydney, New South Wales. 

Clayton, Rev. J. H. Farnboro' Rectory, 
Bagshot. 

Clennell, Jno. E. Esq. Hackney. 

Cochrane, Charles, Esq. Ormsby Iron Works, 
Middlebro'-on-Tees. 

Colchester, W. Esq., F.G.S., &c., Harwich. 

Cole, Jno. W. Esq. 18, Randolph-road, 
Maid Hill West. 

Coles, Henry,Esq. F.G.S. &c.24, Cambridge- 
road, Hammersmith. 

Colvin, Lieut.-Col. C. B. Leintwardine, near 
Ludlow. 

ColHngs, Rev. W. T., F.L.S., G.S. Seigneur 
de Sark, Channel Islands. 



Collingwood, F. S. W. Esq. Glanton Pyke, 
Glanton, Northumberland. 

Cooke, Major A., R.E. Ord. Survey, 
Perth. 

Cooke, W. R. Esq. Burford, Oxon. 

Cooke, Rev. R. B., F.G.S., &c. Wheldrake 
Rectory, York. 

Cooke, Major A., R.E. Perth. 

Cooper, Rev. W. H,, M.A. &c. Sussex- 
square, Brighton. 

Cooper, Rev. W. W. West Rasen, near 
Market Rasen, Lincolnshire. 

Corder, Mrs. Ipswich. 

Corraack, Dr., New York (U.S.) 

Cornthwaite, Rev. T.M.,M.A.Waltharastow 

Cornwall Library, Truro. 

Cots worth, Mrs. 

Cotton, R. P., M.D. &c. 47, Clarges-street, 
Piccadilly. 

Crewdson, W^.D.Esq. Helme Lodge, Kendal. 

Crowley, Alfred, Esq. Croydon, Surrey. 

Crum, Walter, Esq. F.R.S. Thornliebank, 
Glasgow. 

Cubitt, W. Esq. F.G.S. &c. Bedford Hill, 
Streatham, Surrey. 

Cubitt, Geo. Esq. Qo, Warwick-square, 
S.W. 

Cull, R. Esq. IS, Tavistock-street, Bedford- 
square. 

Cunningham, James, Esq. 50, Queen-street, 
Edinburgh. 

Cunnington, W. Esq., F.G.S., &c., Devizes, 
Wilts. 

Curtis, W. jun. Esq. Alton, Hants. 

Cust, Lady Elizabeth, 13, Eccleston-square. 

Darwin, Charles, Esq. M.A., F R.S., L.S. 

G.S., &c., Down, Farnborough, Kent. 
Davidson, Thomas, Esq., F.R.S.,G.S., Mem. 

Geo. Soc, France, &c., 44, Lorn Road 

Terrace, Brixton. 
Davis, John Ford, M.D. IS, Royal Crescent, 

Bath. 
Daw, Robert, Esq. Customs, 3, Leigham 

Terrace, Plymouth. 
Dawes, J. S. Esq. F.G.S., &c. Smithwick, 

Birmingham. 
Dawes, M. Esq. F.G.S. Westbrook, Bolton. 
Dawson, Dr. J. W., F.G.S., &c., MacGill's 

College, Montreal. 



Vlll 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Day^ Alfred, D.C.L. Westbury, near Bristol. 
Day, Hen. Geo. Esq. B.A. St. John's Coll. 

Cambridge. 
Deane, H. Esq. Clapham, Surrey. 
De Castro, James, Esq. 5, Park Villas, 

Richmond. 
Deshayes, Mons., For. M.G.S., Paris. 
Deslongchamps, M., Eudes, For. M.G.S., 

Caen. 
Devon and Exeter Institution, Exeter. 
Devonshire, Duke of. Chancellor of the 

University of London, F.R.S., G.S. &c. 

10, Belgrave-square. 
Dickenson, Joseph, M.D., F.R.S., L.S. &c. 

5, Nelson-street, Great George -square, 

Liverpool. 
Dickinson, W. Esq. Shannon House, 

Worthington. 
Dickinson, Joseph, Esq. F.G.S. Inspector of 

Coal Mines, Pendleton. 
Dickinson, W. H. Es^. St. George's Hospital. 
Dickinson, Henry, Esq. Coalbrook Dale. 
Digby, Lady T., Mintern, near Dorchester. 
Dilke, C. Wentworth, Esq., F.G.S., 76, 

Sloane-street. 
Dilhvyn, L. L. Esq. M.P., F.R.S., L.S. G.S., 

&c., Hendrefoilan, Swansea. 
Dixon, George, Esq. Great Eyton, near 

Stokesley, Yorkshire. 
Donkin, Henry, Esq. 5, Paragon, New Kent- 
road. 
Dorset County Museum Library, Dorchester. 
Douglas, Rev. Robert, Stoke Lacy Rectory, 

Bromyard. 
Dover Proprietary Library. 
Dowell, Geo. M. Esq. Trinity College, 

Dublin. 
Dratleford, Rev. D. J. Chewton, Mendip, 

Somersetshire. 
Drewitt, R. D. Esq. Peppering, near Arundel. 
Ducie, the Earl of, F.R.S., G.S., &c., 30, 

Prince's Gate. 
Duckworth, — Esq Smith and Co., Book- 
sellers, Liverpool. 
Duff, Patrick, Esq. Elgin. 
Dumortier, Mons. E. Lyons. 
D'Urban, John, Esq. 32, Gordon-street, 

Gordon-square. 
Durham, the Dean and Chapter of, Durham. 
Dymock, Rev. T. F. Ventnor, Isle of Wight 



Eardley, Lady, Frognell, Torquay. 

Eassie, Wm. Esq. jun. Railway Saw-mills, 
Gloucester. 

East Sussex Medical and Chirurgical Society, 
Hastings (Dr. Greenhill). 

Edwards, William, Esq. 9, London-street, 
Norfolk-square, Paddington. 

Edwards, F. E. Esq. 2, John-street, Down- 
shire-hill, Hampstead. 

Edwards, Prof. Henry Milne, For. M.R.S., 
&c., Jardin des Plantes, Paris. 

Egerton, Sir Philip de Malpas Grey, Bart. 
M.P., Trustee Brit. Museum, F.R S.. 
G.S., &c. Oulton Park, Cheshire, and 
6, Albermarle-street. 

Elliot, John, Esq. Kingsbridge, Devon. 

Enniskillen, William Willoughby, Earl of, 
D.C.L., F.R.S., G.S., &c. Florence- 
court, Enniskillen, and Athenaeum. 

Escher von der Linih, Arn., For. xM.G.S., 
Zurich. 

Etheridge, R. Esq., F.GS., &c.. Museum 
Pract. Geology, Jermyn-street. 

Evans, Thomas, M.D. Gloucester. 

Eyton, Thos. C. Esq. F.L.S., G.S., &c. 
Vineyard, near Wellington, Salop. 



Falconer, Hugh, M.D., F.R.S.; L.S., G.S. &c. 

31, Sackville-street. 
Falconer, Thomas, Esq. F.G.S., &c., Usk, 

Monmouthshire. 
Falkner, Frederick, Esq. Bath. 
Falkner, Thomas Alexander, Esq. M.A. 

Weymouth. 
Farnham, Lord, Carlton Club, 94, Pall Mall. 
Farrer, J. W. Esq. F.G.S. &c. Ingleborough, 

Yorkshire. 
Faulkner, Charles, Esq. F.S.A., G.S. 

Museum, Deddington, Oxon. 
Favre, M. Alph., Prof. Geology, Academy, 

Geneva. 
Fenton, James, Esq. M.A., Grappenhall, 

Lodge, near AVarrington. 
Ferguson, Daniel, Esq. Coatham Redcar, 

Yorkshire. 
Ferguson, W. Esq. 26, Lloyd-square, Pen- 

tonville. 
Ferguson, Wm. Esq. F.G.S. 31, Torrington- 

square. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



IX 



Fisher, Rev. J. H., F.G.S. &c. Kirby Lons- 
dale. 

Fisher, Rev.Osmond,M.A. F.G.S.Colchester. 

Fitch, Robert, Esq. F.G.S. &c. Norwich. 

Fitton, W. H., M.D., F.R.S., L.S., G.S., &c. 
4, Sussex Gardens, Hyde Park. 

Fletcher, T. W. Esq. F.R.S., G.S., S.A., &c. 
Dudley, Worcestershire. 

Flower, J. W. Esq. Park Hill, Croydon. 

Forchhammer, George, Ph. D., For. M.G.S. 
Copenhagen. 

Fox, Rev. W. D. Delamere Forest, near 
Chester. 

Fraser, James P. Esq. F.G.S. City Bank, 
Glasgow. 

Fraser, John, M.D. Wolverhampton. 

French, Richd. Esq. Trin. Coll., Cambridge. 

Froggat, John, Esq., Church-gate, Stock- 
port. 

Fryer, A. Esq. Chatteris, Cambridgeshire. 

Fuge, J. H. Esq. F.R.C.S.E. Plymouth. 

Fuller, Henry J., M.D. 13, Manchester- 
square. 

Gatty, Charles, Esq. Felbridge Park, East 

Grinstead. 
Galton, Douglas, Esq. R.E., F.G.S., &c. 12, 

Chester-street, Grosvenor-place. 
Gandy, Gerard, Esq. Kendal. 
Gassiot, L P. Esq. F.R.S. &c. Clapham. 
Gavey, George E. Esq. F.G.S., &c. 
Geological Society of Dublin. 
Geological Society of Manchester. 
Geological and Polytechnic Society of the 

W^est Riding of Yorkshire, Leeds. 
Geslin, M. Berthaud, Paris. 
Gibson, G. S. Esq. Saffron Walden. 
Gibson, Thos. F. Esq. F.G.S. &c. 124, 

Westbourne-terrace, Hyde-park. 
Gilchrist, Dr. Royal Institution, Dumfries. 
Glossop, F. H. N. Esq. Isleworth. 
Godlee, Rickman, Esq. Lillies, Upton, Essex. 
Gomonde, W. H. Esq. F.G.S. &c. 
Gordon, P. L. Esq. Craigmyle. 
Gough, Thomas, Esq. Preston Hall, Kendal. 
Gough, Capt. the Hon. G. S., F.L.S., &c. 

Rathnonan, House, Clonmel, Ireland. 
Gould, John, Esq. F.R.S., L.S., Z.S., &c. 

Broad-street, Golden-square. 
Graham, Cyril, Esq. 



Gratton, Joseph, Esq. 32, Gower-street. 

Gray, C. Esq. Bliston. 

Gray, John, Esq. Lyttleton-terrace, Hagley, 

near Stourbridge. 
Gray, Thos. Esq. 37, Montieth-row, Glasgow. 
Greene, Prof. J. B., Cork. 
Griesbach, Rev. A. W. Wollaston, Welling- 
borough, Northampton. 
Griffith, Edw. Esq. F.R.S., &c. Common 
Pleas Office, Serjeant's Inn, Chancery- 
lane. 
Griffith, N. Esq. F.G.S., &c. Dublin. 
Griffith, Sir Richard, Bart., LL.D., F.G.S., 

&c. Dublin. 
Grosvenor, Horace, Esq. Cincinnati, Ohioj 

U.S. 
Grundy, Thomas, Esq. Northampton. 
Gruner, M. Louis, Directeur de I'Ecole 
Imperiale des Mines, &c. St. Etienne, 
Loire, France. 
Guise, W. V. Esq. F.G.S. &c. Elmore-court, 
near Gloucester. 

Hagenow, Chevalier Frederic de. Ph. D. &c. 

Griefswald, Pomerania. 
Hall, Robert, Esq. 8, Dean's-yard, West- 
minster. 
Hall, William, Esq., Feversham, Kent. 
Hall, Robert W. Esq. F.G.S. Raglan House, 

W heath, Glamorganshire. 
Hall, James, Esq. For. M.G.S. Geological 

Survey, States Library, Albany, New 

York, U.S. 
Halle, University, Library of. 
Hambrough, B.J. Esq. F.G.S. Niton, LW. 
Hamilton, E. M.D., F.L.S., 22, Grafton- 

street, Bond-street. 
Hamilton, W. J. Esq. F.R.S., For. Sec. G.S., 

23, Chesham-place, Pimlico. 
Hansfield, J. Esq. 

Hanson, Samuel, Esq. Botolph-lane. 
Harkness, Prof. Robert, F.R.S., G.S., Queen's 

College, Cork. 
Harmar, Richard, Esq. 9, Brock-street, Bath. 
Harris, W. Esq. F.G.S. Charing, Kent. 
Harrison, Wm. Esq. Galligreaves House, 

Blackburn. 
Hastie, Alexander, Esq. M.P. &c. Glasgow. 
Haughton, Prof. S., M.A., F.R.S., G.S. Trin. 

Coll., Dublin. 



• LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Hawes, Rev. Henry, B.A., F.L.S. &c.. 

Southsea, Portsmouth. 
Hawkins, M. R. Esq. 4, Stanhope-street, 

Hyde Park Gardens. 
Hawkins, B. Waterhouse, Esq. F.L.S., G.S. 

Belvidere-road, Norwood. 
Heales, Alfred, Esq. Doctors' Commons. 
Hector, James,M.D.Edinburgh (Maclachlan 

and Stewart). 
Henslow, Rev. John S., M.A., F.L.S., G.S. 

and C.P.S. Trof. Bot. Camb., Hitcham, 

Bildeston, SufTolk. 
Heywood, James, Esq. F.R.S., G.S. &c. 

Athenaeum. 
Higgins, E. T. Esq. 10, Brook-terrace, Birk- 
enhead. 
Highley, Samuel, Esq. jun. F.G.S. Box Hill, 

Surrey. 
Hill, Miss, Rock House, Bath. 
Hills, William Henry, Esq. Sunderland. 
Hitchman, Dr. John, County Asylum, Derby. 
Holmes, George B. Esq. Horsham. 
Hony, Rev. W. E., F.G.S. &c. ArcMeacon of 

Sarum, Baverstock, near Salisbury. 
Hopgood, James, Esq. Clapham Common. 
Hopkins, W. Esq. M.A., F.R.S., G.S. 

Cambridge. 
Horner, Leonard, Esq. F.R.S., G.S. 17, 

Queen's Road West, Regent's Park. 
Horner, Rev. John S.Mello Park, near Frome. 
Howard, Mrs. Greystoke Castle, Penrith. 
Howitt, Thomas, Esq. Lancaster. 
Hoyland, Chas. Esq. l6, Old Broad-street. 
Hudson, Robert, Esq.T.R.S., G.S. Clapham. 
Huguenin, O. F. U. T. Esq. Java. 
Hull, Edward, Esq. F.G.S. &c. Museum 

Pract. Geology, Jermyn-street. 
Hull, Edwd. Esq., Manor House, Little 

Hampton, Bengworth, Eversham. 
Hull, W. D. Esq. F.G.S. &c. 49, Milner- 

square, Islington. 
Hunt, Z. D. Esq. F.G.S. Aylesbury. 
Hunter, Rev. S. Wolverhampton. 
Hunter, Rev. Robert. 
Hutchins, Miss, Alton, Hants. 
Hutton, R. Esq. F.G.S., M.R.LA. &c. 

Putney Park. 
Huxley, T. H. Esq. F.R.S., L.S., Sec. G.S., 

Museum Practical Geology, Jermyn 

Street. 



lUingworth, Rev. E. A. S, Mecklenburgh 

street, Mecklenburgh-square. 
lUingworth, R. S. Esq. 9, Norfolk-crescent. 
Ilott, James, Esq. Bromley, Kent. 
Ipswich Museum, Ipswich. 

Jackson, W. Esq. Newton, near Penrith. 

Jackson, Edward S. Esq. M.A., F.G.S. &c. 
Totteridge House, Enfield Highway, 
Middlesex. 

James, Lieut.-Col. H., R.E., F.R.S., G.S. 
&c. Ordnance Survey, Southampton. 

Jardine, Sir Wm. Bart. F.R.S.E., F.L.S. &c. 
Jardiue Hall, Lockerby, N.B. 

Jarvis, Richard H. Esq. F.G.S. 24, Dorset- 
square. 

Jeffreys, J. G. Esq. F.R.S., L.S. 1, Mon- 
tague-square. 

Jennings, F. M. Esq. M.R.I.A. &c. Cork. 

Johnes, J. Esq. F.G.S. Dolan Coihi, Llandilo, 
North Wales. 

Johnson, V/illiam, Esq. Eton College. 

Jones, Rear-Ad miral T., M.P., F.L.S., G.S. 
&c. 30, Charles-street, St. James's. 

Jones, John, Esq. Gloucester. 

Jourdain, Dr. Director, Museum, Lyons. 

Jukes, J. B. Esq. M.A., F.R.S., G.S. &c. 
Geological Survey of Ireland, Stephen's- 
green, Dublin. 

Keal, John, Esq. Bellevue-house, Bristol. 
Kell, William, Esq. Gateshead, near New- 

castle-on-Tyne. 
Kenyon, the Hon. Mrs., Parade, Shrewsbury. 
Kenyon, J. R. Esq. British Museum. 
King, Prof. W. F.G.S. Prospect-hill, Galway. 
King, W. P. Esq. Rodney-place, Chfton, 

Bristol. 
Konigliches Ober Berg. Amt. Bonn. 
Kingston, G. S. Esq. Grote-street, Adelaide, 

S. Australia. 
Knapp, Charles, Esq. 2, Harcourt-buildings, 

Temple. 
Krantz, M. Bonn. 
Kuprainoff, Lieut.-Col., St. Petersburg. 

Laidlay, John W. Esq. Calcutta, and 

Hindon, near Arundel. 
Landseer, George, Esq. Cunningham-place, 

St. John's Wood. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



XI 



Lankester, Edwin, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

L.S. 8, Savile-row, Bond-street. 
Lashmar, Dr. C. Croydon. 
Law, Rev. Julius, Conran, Durham. 
Lawrance, John, Esq. F.G.S. Elton, Oundle. 
Leckenby, Jno. Esq. F.G.S. Scarborough. 
Lee, John, LL.D., F.R.S., R.A.S., G.S. &c. 

5, College, Doctors^ Commons. 
Lee, Jno. Edward, Esq. F.G.S. The Priory, 

Caerleon, Monmouthshire. 
Leeds Library, Leeds, Yorkshire. 
Leigh, Dr. J. S., 7, St. Stephen's-terrace, 

Westbourne Park. 
Lesson, E., M.D., Bonchurch, Isle of Wight. 
Lemon, Sir C. Bart. F.R.S., G.S. &c. 40, 

Charles-street. 
Library of the University, King's College, 

Aberdeen. 
Lidstone, Roger, Esq. Plymouth. 
Lindsay, Chas. Esq. 10, Addle-street, Doctors' 

Commons. 
Lingard, Jno. R. Esq. Alderley, near Wilms- 

low, Cheshire. 
Lister, J. J. Esq. F.R.S. &c. Upton, Essex. 
Lister, Jno., M.D., F.G.S. &c. Shibden Hall, 

near Halifax. 
Lister, Rev. W. Bushbury, Staffordshire. 
Literary and Philosophical Society of Shef- 
field. 
Literary and Philosophical Society of New- 
castle. 
Literary and Philosophical Institution, 

Cheltenham. 
Liveing, G. E. Esq. St. John's College, 

Cambridge. 
Liverpool Free Public Library (J. S. Dalton, 

Esq.) 
Llewelyn, J. D. Esq. F.R.S., L.S. &c. Pentle- 

gare, Swansea. 
Llewellen, W.jun. Esq. F.R.S. &c.Pontypool. 
Lloyd, John, Esq. 77, Snow-hill. 
Lloyd, Frederick, Esq. 30, Dorset-square. 
Long, H. W. Esq. Rood Ashton, Trowbridge. 
London Institution, Finsbury Circus. 
Longman, Messrs. and Co. Paternoster-row. 
Lonsdale, W. Esq. F.G.S. Burnham, Bridge- 
water. 
Loriere, Mons., Jardin des Plantes, Paris. 
Loven, Prof. S,, Stockholm. 
Low and Son, Ludgate-hill. 



Lowry, J. W. Esq. F.R.G.S. 45, Robert- 
street, Hampstead-road. 

Lubbock, Sir John W. Bart. M.A., F.R.S., 
L.S., G.S. Mansion-house-street. 

Ludlow Natural History Society. 

Lury, S. H. Esq. l6. Old Board-street. 

Lyell, Sir C, M.A., F R.S., L.S., G.S. &c. 
53, Harley-street, Cavendish-square. 



Mackeson, Henry B. Esq. F.G.S. &c. Hythe, 

Kent. 
Mackey, Lieut.-Col., Fairhill, near Exeter. 
Maclaren, Charles, Esq. F.R.S.E., G.S. &c. 

Moreland Cottage, Grange, Edinburgh. 
^Maclean, William C. Esq. St. Ann's Thicket, 

Portsea. 
Macleod, John, M.D., H.M.S. Hermes. 
McAndrew, R. Esq, F.R.S. Allhallows 

Chambers, Lombard-street. 
McDowell, Geo. Esq., Dublin. 
McDowell, G. M. Esq. F.T.C.D., Trinity 

College, Dublin. 
Mcintosh, John, Esq. Taunton. 
Macredie, P.B.M. Esq. Perceton Irvine, N.B. 
Majendie, A. Esq. F.R.S., G.S. &c. Heding- 

ham Castle, Castle Hedingham, Essex. 
Major, Charles, Esq. Red Lion Wharf, Upper 

Thames-street. 
Malta Library, Malta. 

Mansell, John, Esq. Cossington, Bridge- 
water. 
Marcou, Professor of Geology, Zurich. 
Marier, Mons. Paul, 10, Rue Blanche, Paris. 
Marsh, John, Esq. Burnt Tree, near Dudley. 
Marshall, James G. Esq. M.P. Leeds. 
Marshall, Matthew, Esq. Bank of England. 
Martin, P. J. Esq. F.G.S. &c. Pulborough. 
Martineau, F. Edgar, Esq. 42, George-street» 

Edgbaston, Birmingham. 
Matthieson, James, Esq. 19, Belitha-terrace, 

Barnsbury Park. 
Matthews, W. jun. Esq. F.G.S. Edgbaston, 

Birmingham. 
Maw, G. Esq. Barratt's-hill House, Broseley, 

Salop. 
Meade, Rev. R. J. Castle Cary. 
Mechanics' Institution, Lewes. 
Mechanics' Institution, Llandilo. 
Mechanics' Institution, Leicester. 



xu 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Medlock, Henry, Esq. Great Marlborough- 
street. 

Melbourne University Library, Australia. 

Melville, Prof. M.D. &c., Queen's College, 
Gahvay. 

Merian, Prof. Directeur de Museum, Basle. 

Meryon, Edward, M.D. F.G.S. 14, Clarges- 
street. 

Middleton, John, Esq. 63, St. Stephen- 
street, Norwich. 

Mitchell, Dr. J. F.R.S. King-street, Kil- 
marnock, Ayrshire. 

Mitchenson, John, Esq. 5Q, South-street, 
Durham. 

Mohr, Ernest, Herr, Heidelberg. 

Mold, W. H. Esq. Aldersley, Derbyshire. 

Molini, Charles Frederick, Esq. 17, King 
William-street, West Strand. 

Monk, Jas. Esq. Aden Cottage, Durham. 

Moore, J. C. Esq.F.R.S., G.S. &c. 4, Hyde 
Park Gate, Kensington. 

Moore, Charles, Esq. F.G.S. Cambridge- 
place, Widcome-hill, Bath. 

Moore, Joseph, Esq. 25, Park Terrace, 
Brixton-road. 

Morant, A. W. Esq. F.G.S. 2, Britannia- 
terrace, Great Yarmouth. 

Morgan, Rev. William Leigh, Cardiff. 

Morgan, William, Esq. Swansea. 

Morris, John, Professor, F.G.S. Kensington. 

Morson, T. N. Esq. Southampton-row, 
Russell-square. 

Morton, George Highfield, Esq. 5, London- 
road, Liverpool. 

Mosley, Sir Oswald, Bart. D.C.L., F.L.S., 
G.S. &e. Rolleston Hall, Burton-on- 
Trent. 

Murchison, Sir R. L, G.C.St.S., M.A., 
D.C.L., F.R.S., G.S., L.S. &c. 16, 
Belgrave-square. 

Murdock, William, M.D. 320, Rotherhithe. 

Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn-street. 

Neale, Edward V. Esq. West Wickham, Kent. 

Neale, T. C. Esq. Chelmsford. 

Neale, Henry, Esq. Foxhangers, Devizes. 

^eison, Francis, G. P. Esq. F.L.S. &c. 
3a, St. James's-square. 

Nelson, Lieut.-Col. R. L, R.E. 9, Moles- 
worth-terrace, Stoke, Devonport. 



New York State Library, Albany, U.S. 

Newman, Edward, Esq. F.L.S. &c. 9, Devon- 
shire-street, Bishopsgate-street. 

Norfolk and Norwich Literary Institution. 

Norris, Henry, Esq. F.R.C.S. &c. Char- 
mouth, Dorset. 

Norton, J. H., M.D., F.G.S. &c. Amroath 
Castle, near Tenby. 

Nunneley, Thomas, Esq. Leeds. 

Nutt, David, Esq. 270, Strand. 

Oldham, Prof. 18, Pembroke-road, Dubhn. 
Olivier, Lieut.-Col. H. S. Pottern Manor, 

Devizes. 
Ormerod, G. W. Esq. M.A., F.G.S. &c. 

Chagford, Exeter. 
Owen, R., Professor, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., 

L.S., G.S., &c. British Museum. 

Paine, Mrs. Farnham. 

Papillon, Rev. J. Lexden. 

Parry, Thomas G. Esq. F.G.S. Highnam 

Court, near Gloucester. 
Pattisson, Mrs. Jacob, Witham, Essex. 
Payne, Rev. Wm. Reading. 
Paynter, Rev. Samuel, Stoke Hill, Guildford, 

Surrey. 
Peace, William, Esq. Haigh, near Wigan. 
Pearson, Sir Edwin, K.H., M.A., F.R.S. &c. 

7, Chester-terrace, Regent's Park. 
Pease, Thomas, Esq. Henbury, near Bristol. 
Peckover, Algernon, Esq. F.L.S. Wisbeach. 
Pengelly, William, Esq. F.G.S. Torquay. 
Penny, Rev. James, M.A. &c. Blandford. 
Penruddocke, Charles, Esq. Compton Park, 

near Salisbury, and 12, Hereford-street, 

Oxford-street. 
Perkins, Rev. R. B. Wotton-Underedge, 

Gloucestershire. 
Perry, George, Esq. Croydon, and Charter 

House. 
Pertz, Dr. Berlin. 
Phillips, Prof. John, M.A., F.R.S., G.S. &c. 

Magdalen Bridge, Oxford. • 
Philosophical Society of Glasgow. 
Philosophical Society, Leicester. 
Philosophical Society, York. 
Phear, Rev. Sam. Geo., Emmanuel College, 

Cambridge. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



xui 



Pickering, John, Esq. Tufnell-park-road, 

Upper Holloway. 
Pictet, Prof. Geneva. 
Pidgeon, Jonathan S. Esq. Pembridge Villa, 

Bayswater. 
Pierson, Charles, Esq. Blenheim Parade, 

Cheltenham. 
Plant, James, Esq. Princess-street, Leicester. 
Plomley, F., M.D., F.L.S. &c. Maidstone. 
Pollock, Lady, Clapham-common. 
Portal, Wyndham S. Esq. Malshanger 

House, Basingstoke. 
Portlock,Major-General,LL.D.,F.R.S.,G.S. 

&c 58, Queen's Gardens, Hyde Park, W. 
Portman, Hon. Miss, 5, Prince's Gate, Hyde 

Park. 
Powles, T. W. Esq. 46, Wimpole-street. 
Pratt, S- P. Esq. F.R.S., L.S., G.S. &c. 25, 

Thurlow-square, Brompton, S.W. 
Preston Literary and Philosophical Insti- 
tution. 
Prestwich, Joseph, Esq. F.R.S., G.S. 10, 

Kent-terrace, Regent's Park Road. 
Pritchard,Rev.C.,M.A., F.R.S.&c. Clapham. 
Prout, Rev. E., F.G.S. &c. Mission House, 

Blomfield-street, Finsbury. 
Provis, William A. Esq. The Grange, EUes- 

mere, Salop. 

Queen's College, Gal way. 

Raban, Major, Junior United Service Club, 

Regent-street. 
RadclifFe Library, Oxford. 
Ramsay, Prof. A. C, F.R.S., G.S. &c. 

Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn- 

street. 
Ramsay, William, Frof. of Humanity^ Uni- 
versity of Glasgow. 
Rankin, R. M.D. Carluke, Glasgow. 
Ranlin, Professor, Bordeaux. 
Ransome, Mrs. Robert, Ipswich. 
Raper, W. A., M.D. Parade, Portsmouth. 
Rashleigh, J. Esq. 3, Cumberland-terrace, 

Regent's Park. 
Rich, Messrs, 12, Tavistock-row, Covent- 

garden. 
Richardson, W. S., Esq. F.G.S. &c. 26, 

Dorset-place, Dorset-square. 



Richardson, William, Esq. Southeram, near 
Halifax. 

Risley, Rev. WiUiam Cotton, M.A. Ded- 
dington, Oxfordshire. 

Robbins, George S. Esq. F.G.S. Midford 
Castle, near Bath. 

Roddam, Jonathan, Esq. Newhouse, Wear- 
dale, Durham. 

Rofe, John, Esq. F.G.S. &c. Preston. 

Roots, William, M.D., F.S.A. &c. Surbiton, 
Kingston, Surrey. 

Roper, F. C. S. Esq. F.G.S., L.S. Pembury- 
road, Clapton. 

Rose, C. B. Esq. F.G.S. &c. 28, King-street, 
Gt. Yarmouth. 

Rosling, A. Esq. Southwark Bridge Wharf. 

Rosser, W. H. Esq. 60, King-street, 
Stepney. 

Rothery, H. C. Esq. M.A., F.L.S. 94, 
Gloucester-terrace, Hyde-park. 

Rothery, Charles W. Esq. Greta Hall, 
Keswick. 

Royal Artillery Institution, Woolwich. 

Royal Agricultural College Library, Ciren- 
cester. 

Royal College of Surgeons. 

Royal Dublin Society. 

Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, Pen- 
zance. 

Royal Institution, Edinburgh. 

Royal Institution, Liverpool. 

Royal Institution of South Wales, Swansea. 

Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. 

Royal Military College, Sandhurst, Bag- 
shot. 

Rudd, Rev. Leonard H. M.A. Twyford, 
Reading. 

Russ, James, Esq. F.G.S. Clovelly Lodge, 
Abbey Wood, Kent. 

Rutter, John, Esq. Ilminster. 

Sabine, General, R.A., F.R.S.,L.S., &c. 13, 
Ashley-place, Westminster. 

Salter, J. W. Esq. F.G.S. &c. Museum of 
Practical Geology, Jermyn-street. 

Sanders, W. Esq. F.G.S. &c. 21, Richmond- 
terrace, Clifton, Bristol. 

Sauders, Gilbert, Esq., M.R.I.A. &c., 2, 
Forster-place, Dublin. 

Sandwitb, Thos. M.D., Beverley, Yorkshire. 



XIV 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Sanford, W. A. Esq. F.G.S. Nynehead-court, 
Wellington, Somerset. 

Sansom, Thomas, Esq., 7, Everton-street, 
Liverpool. 

Saunders, W. Wilson, Esq. F.R.S., L.S. &c. 
Lloyds'. 

Saxby, S. H. Esq. 

Scarborougli Philosophical Society. 

Schlumberger, Jos. K. Esq. Mulherese, 
France. 

Schrieber, Lady Charlotte, 18, King^s Arms- 
yard, ]\Ioorgate-street. 

Schultz, Mons. Guillermo, Paris. 

Schumard, Dr. B. F., per Bailliere and Co. 

Scott, J. B. Esq. M.A. Bungay, Suflfolk. 

Scott, Capt. R. E. 6, Clarence-place, Wool- 
wich. 

Sedgwick,Rev.Adam,M.A.,F.R.S.,G.S.&c. 
Cambridge. 

Selwyn, A. R. C. Esq. Geological Survey 
Office, Melbourne. 

Sentenis, — , Esq. per Longman & Co. 

Sharman, George, Esq., 7, Belgrave-terrace, 
Abbey-wood, St. John^s-wood. 

Sharp, Samuel, Esq. Stamford. 

Sharp, John, Esq. F.G.S. Culverden Castle, 
Toubridge Wells. 

Shaw, John, M.D., F.G.S. &c. Hop House, 
Boston, Lincolnshire. 

Sherman, Rev. James, Paragon, Blackheath. 

Sheppard, T. Byard, Esq. Selwood Cottage, 
Frome. 

Sheppard, Alfred B. Esq., Torquay. 

Shipp, W. Esq. Blandford, Dorset. 

Sidney Sussex College Library, Cambridge. 

Silurian Society, Bytown, U.S., per Bail- 
liere and Co. 

Sims, W. D. Esq. Ipswich. 

Simms, George, Esq. Bathwick-hill, Bath. 

Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., Messrs., 
Stationers' Hall Court, E.C. 

Simpson, S. Esq. The Greaves, Lancaster. 

Sloper, George E., Esq. Devizes. 

Smith, James, Esq. F.R.S.L. & E., G.S. &c. 
Jordan Hill, near Glasgow. 

Smith, Captain Robert, Frankfort Avenue, 
Rathgar, Dublin. 

Smith, Samuel, Esq. Wisbeach. 

Smith, Rev. Charles, Lesingham, Little 
Canfield Rectory, near Chelmsford, 
Essex. 



Smithe, Rev. Frederick, M.A., F.G.S. 

Churchdown, Cheltenham. 
Sismonda, M. Angelo, Prof, of Mineralogy, 

For. M.G.S. Turin. 
St. Marc, Mons. Meaux, Rue Hautesville, 

No. 19, Paris. 
St. Peter's College, Cambridge (Rev. Dr. 

Cook son). 
Sopwith, T. Esq. F.R.S., G.S. 43, Cleveland 

Square, Hyde Park. 
Sorby, H. C. Esq. F.R.S., G.S. Broomfield, 

Sheffield. 
Sowerby, James de Carle, Esq. F.L.S. &c. 

Royal Botanic Gardens, Regent's Park. 
Sparrow, Arthur, jun. Esq. Wolverhampton. 
Spence, W. Esq. F.R.S., L.S. &c. 18, Lower 

Seymour-street. 
Spragge, W. K, Esq. Paignton, near Torquay. 
Spratt, Thomas, Capt. R.N., F.R.S., G.S. 

Tynemouth, Devon. 
Stamford Institution. 
Stansfield, James, Esq. Halifax. 
Stevens, H. Esq. F.G.S. &c. The Shaws, 

Matlock, Derbyshire. 
Stewart, John, Esq. F.R.S.E. &c. Poulton- 

le- Sands, near Lancaster. 
Studer, Prof, For. M.G.S., Berne. 
Sunderland Corporation Museum, per John 

Evans, Esq. M.B. 

Tate, George, Esq. F.G.S. &c. Alnwick. 

Taylor, John, Esq. F.R.S., L.S., G.S. 6, 
Queeu's-place, Upper Thames-street. 

Taylor, S. Watson, Esq. Urchfont, Devizes. 

Teale, T. P. Esq. F.L.S. &c. Leeds. 

Tennant, Prof. Jas. F.G.S. &c. 149, Strand 
{two copies). 

Teschemacher, Frederick, Esq. 4, Park- 
terrace, Highbury. 

Thiolliere, M. Victor, 19, Rue St. Domi- 
nique, Paris. 

Thomas, F. W. L. Esq. Lieut. R.N., Trinity, 
near Edinburgh. 

Thompson, Miss S. Stamford. 

Thompson, Jas. Esq. Netherfield, Kendal. 

Thomson, Alexander, Esq. F.R.S.E. Ban- 
chory House, Aberdeen. 

Thomson, Dr. Allen, Prof Anatomy, Uni- 
versity, Glasgow. 

Thomson, Prof. Wyville, F.G.S. Queen's 
College, Belfast. 



LIST or MEMBERS. 



XV 



Thomson, Thos. Esq. Hull. 

Thornton, Rev. John, M.A., F.G.S., &c. 
Aston Abbots, near Aylesbury. 

Tite, S. C. Esq. Towcester, Northampton- 
shire. 

Tomes, R. F. Esq. Welford, near Stratford- 
on-Avon. 

Tomes, John, Esq. 37, Cavendish-square. 

Tomkins, Chas. M.D., F.L.S., &c. Weston- 
super-Mare, Somersetshire. 

Torquay Natural History Society. 

Tovey, R. Esq. 9, Waterloo-place, South- 
ampton. 

Townsend, Mrs. R. E. A. Spring Field, 
Norwood. 

Traill, Prof. Thos. Stewart, M.D. Edinburgh. 

Trench, Rich. Esq. Deanery, Westminster. 

Trevelyan, Sir W. C. Bart., M.A,. F.G.S., 
&c. Wellington, Northumberland, and 
Athenaeum. 

Trubner, M., Esq. Paternoster-row, E.G. 

Twamley, Charles, Esq. F.G.S. 6, Queen's- 
road, Gloucester-gate, Regent's Park. 

Tweedy, ^I. Esq. Alverton, Truro. 

Tyler, Chas. Esq. 24, Holloway-place, Hol- 
loway. 

Tylor, Alfred, Esq. F.G.S., L.S. Warwick- 
lane, Newgate- street. 

United States Military Academy, West 
Point, New York (per C. Layton, 16, 
Little Britain). 

University of Glasgow. 

University of Tubingen. 

University Library, St. Andrew's. 

University of Edinburgh. 

University of Breslau (per Franz Thimm, 
3, Brook-street, Grosvenor- square.) 

Valenciennes, Prof. Jardin des Plantes, 

Paris. 
Vallance, Mrs. 54, Queen-street, Brighton. 
Veal, Samuel, Esq. Wolverhampton. 
Verneuil, Mens. Edouard de, For. M.G.S. 

57, Rue de la Madeleine, Paris. 
Vetch, Captain J. R.N., F.R.S., G.S., &c.. 

Admiralty, Whitehall. 
Vicary, Wm. Esq. St. David' s-hill, Exeter. 

Wade, Mrs. John, Leeds. 
Walker, H. M.D. Calcutta, per Williams 
and Norgate. 



Wall, Geo. P. Esq. Pitmoor, near Sheffield. 

Waller, Edward, Esq. Fiunoe House, Burri- 
sokane, Ireland. 

Walmstedt, Dr. L. P. Prof. Mineralogy, 
Upsala, per Triibner and Co. Pater- 
noster-row. 

Walton, William, Esq. London Dock Head, 
Poplar. 

Walton, William, Esq. 17, Grosvenor-place, 
Bath. 

Walwein, Mons. Paris. 

Ward, N. B. Esq. F.R.S., L.S., &c.. 14, 
Claphara-rise. 

Ward, Henry, Esq. Wolverhampton. 

Waring, Samuel Long, Esq. 115, St. John- 
street. 

Warrington Museum and Library. 

Warwickshire Natural History Society. 

Watson, Thos. Esq. 64, Old Broad-street. 

Watts, John King, Esq. St. Ives, Hunt- 
ingdon. 

Wauchope, Admiral, Dacre, Penrith. 

Weston, Charles H. Esq. B.A., F.G.S., 5, 
Sion-place, Sion-hill, Bath. 

Wetherell, N. T. Esq. M.R.C.S. &c. High- 
gate. 

Wheldon, John, Esq. 4, Paternoster-row. 

Whewell, Rev. William, B.D., F.R.S., Hon. 
M.R.LA., F.S.A., F.G.S., F.R.A.S., 
Mast. Trin. Coll. Camb. Lodge, Cam- 
bridge. 

White, Alfred, Esq. F.L.S. &c. Castle-street, 
Cow-cross. 

White, J. G., M.D., 26, Lloyd-square, Pen- 
tonville. 

White, Rev. Wm. Farrer, St. John's Coll. 
Cambridge. 

Wiggins, John, Esq. F.G.S. 30, Tavistock- 
place. 

Willcock, J. W. Esq. 6, Stone-buildings, 
Lincoln's Inn. 

Willaume, Thos. B. T. Esq. 5, Leicester- 
gardens, Cleveland-square, Bayswater. 

Williams, W. W. :M.D. Gloucester' 

Wills, William, Esq.Edgbaston, Birmingham. 

Wilson, Rev. Dr. Southampton. 

Wilson, D. Esq. 5, St. Nicholas-street, 
Aberdeen. 

Wilson, John, Esq. F.R.S.E., F.G.S., Elm 
Cottage, Edinburgh. 

Wilson, J. ,.H. Esq. B.A., F.L.S., F.R.B.S. 
&c. The Grange, Worth, Sussex. 



XVI 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Wilson, Edward, Esq. F.G.S. &c. Lydstip 
House, near Tenby, S. Wales. 

Wilson, Rev. Sumner, Newnham, Winch- 
field. 

Wilson, Edward, Esq. Lyons. 

Wiltshire, Rev. Thos. M.A., F.G.S., &c. 
Rectory, Bread-street-hill. 

Wilton, John W. Esq. Gloucester. 

Witts, Rev. E. F., F.G.S. Upper Slanglor 
Rectory, near Stow-on-the-Wold. 

Winstone, Benjamin, M.D. 7, Ely-place, 
Holborn. 

Wintle, G. S. Esq. East Gate-street, Glou- 
cester. 

WoUey, Rev. Charles, Eton College. 

Wood, Edward, Esq. F.G.S., F.R.S.L., &c. 
Richmond, Yorkshire, 

Wood, Mrs. Col. Rectory House, Wickham, 
Bishops Witham. 

Wood, S. V. Esq. F.G.S. &c. St. Stephen's 
House, Twickenham, Treasurer. 

Wood, Rev. Henry, Queen^s Coll. Oxford. 

Woodall, Capt., J. P., F.G.S., &c. St. 
• Nicholas House, Scarborough. 



Woodd, C. H. L. Esq. F.G.S., F.S.A. &c. 

Belsinga, Hampstead. 
Woodward, Charles, Esq. F.R.S. 10, Comp- 

ton-terrace, Islington. 
Worcestershire Nat. Hist. Soc. Foregate, 

Worcester. 
Working Men's College, 45, Great Ormond- 

street. 
Wright, Chas. C. Esq. 37, Woburn-square. 
Wright, Thomas, M.D., F.R.S.E., G.S., 

Pres. of the Phil, and Lit. Institution, 

Cheltenham. 
Wright, E. Percival, Esq. University, 

Dublin. 

Yates, James, Esq. M.A., F.R.S., L.S., G.S. 
&c. Lauderdale House, Highgate. 

Yorke, Hon. Mrs. Hanescombe, Torquay. 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Club, York. 

Young, J. Forbes, M.D., F.L.S. &c. Upper 
Kennington-lane. 

Young, James, Esq. Tower-hill, East Smith- 
field. 

Zeuschner, Prof. Cracow, per Thimm and Co. 



INTEODUCTION. 

The best general account of the Chalk Formation of England will be found in the 
' Geology of England and Wales,' by Conybeare and Phillips, 1822, in which is em- 
bodied a detailed description of the Chalk Cliffs in the neighbourhood of Dover by 
Mr. W. Phillips, published in the fifth volume of the ' Transactions of the Geological 
Society.' The divisions of the Formation which Mr. Phillips has pointed out, are more 
minute than can be followed in the present Monograph, since few collectors attend to the 
precise part of the series from which their specimens are derived. I have, therefore, 
usually contented myself with referring specimens to one or other of the following great 
divisions of the Chalk, which are easily recognised, although they are not separated by any 
well-defined lines. 

1. Upper Chalk; my specimens of which are principally from Norfolk, or from 
Gravesend and Northfleet : this division is rich in Organic Remains. 

2. Middle Chalk, which contains but few Fossils : those examined are mostly from 
Kent, Surrey, Sussex, and the Isle of Wight. 

3. Lower or Grey Chalk, containing numerous Fossils, especially Ammonites and 
Turrilites : the neighbourhood of Dover, and of Lewes, and the Isle of Wight furnish 
large supplies ; many specimens have also been procured from the numerous Chalk-pits 
along the foot of the North Downs, and others have been obhgingly sent from Devizes, 
by Mr. W. Cunnington. 

4. The " Chloritic Marl " of the Isle of Wight, a bed of some six or eight feet thick at 
the base of the Chalk, is very rich in Organic Remains, ^^'ith which I have been most 
liberally supphed from the rich Collection of Mr. S. Saxby, Jun., of Bonchurch. The 
" Chalk with Siliceous Grains," of Somersetshire, is probably on the same parallel as the 
" Chloritic Marl," and also contains abundance of Shells, of which a large collection 
formed at Chardstock has been most obhgingly lent me by Mr. J. Wiest : these have the 
advantage of being far better preserved than is usual with the Chalk Fossils. I have also 
had the use of Collections from this bed, belonging to Mr. E. H. Bunbury and 
Mr. Morris. 

1 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

Besides the gentlemen already mentioned, I am indebted for the loan of specimens to 
Mr. Baber, Mr. Bowerbank, Mr. Henry Catt, Mr. Faulkner, Mr. Flower, Mr. Hudson, 
Mr. J. G. Low, Mr. S. J. Mackie, Dr. Mantell, Mr. H. Taylor, and Mr. Wetherell, whose 
names will be frequently mentioned in the course of the work, together with those of 
others, who may be kind enough to lend me similar assistance. I have also to thank 
Mr. Morris most especially for his valuable assistance in determining many obscure 
species, and Mr. S. P. Woodward, for notes relating to specimens in the British Museum, 
and for many drawings of parts requiring particular accuracy. 

In giving the generic characters of Fossil Shells, it seems unnecessary to add 
descriptions of the Animals supposed to have inhabited and formed them ; since such 
descriptions must be more or less conjectural, and information on this head is amply 
and more fitly provided by writers on the recent branches of Natural History. The 
Palaeontologist must be contented with descriptions of the shell only, such as were 
furnished by the earlier school of Conchologists. The student who desires information 
about the Molluscous inhabitants of recent Shells, should consult the ' History of British 
Mollusca and their Shells/ by Forbes and Hanley, and the ' Figures of Molluscous Animals' 
by Mrs. Gray, or he will find in the ' Rudimentary Treatise of Recent and Fossil Shells' 
by S. P. Woodward a large amount of information condensed into a small and most 
economical form. 



FOSSIL REMAINS OF MOLLUSCA 

FOUND IN THE CHALK. 



CEPHALOPODA. 

Belemnites, Audoricm. 

Animal unknown, enclosing a straight elongated conical, or fusiform calcareous shell 
or guard more or less pointed below, and pierced above with a conical cavity or alveolus, 
in which is lodged the phragmacone, a hollow horny cone divided into chambers by nearly 
horizontal septa, which are traversed on the anterior or ventral margin by a siphuncle. 
Wall of the alveolus entire. Exterior of the shell marked, in many species, by a furrow 
down the front, and one down the middle of each side, but without any branching 
vascular impressions. 

The above description includes all the parts of the Belemnites which have been found 
in the Chalk ; but in some of the beds of the Oohtic series more perfect specimens are 
found, in which the phragmacone is produced far above the walls of the calcareous shell, 
and is provided with two elongated, slender, testaceous processes, proceeding from the 
dorso-lateral margins of its upper edge; and the whole body is invested with a thin 
testaceous or comeo-calcareous integument. For full descriptions of these interesting 
remains the reader is referred to the Memoirs of Professor Owen in the ' Philosophical 
Transactions of 1844,' and of Dr. Mantell in the volumes of the same work for 1848 and 
1850, and to the ' Paleontologie Francaise, Terrains Jurassiques' of M. D'Orbigny. 

M. D'Orbigny separated from the Belemnites those species which have a fissure down 
the anterior or ventral side of the alveolar cavity, and which are provided with two longitudinal 
depressions down the dorso-lateral portions of the shell, from which, in some species, 
proceed branching vascular impressions ; to these he has given the name of Belemnitella. 

1. Belemnites ultimtjs, B'Orb. Plate I, fig. 17. 

Belemnites minimus, in part? Lister. Hist. Anim. Angliae, tab. vii, fig. 32 ? 

— LiSTERi, Phillips. Geology of "Yorkshire, vol. i, tab. i, fig. 18? 

— ULTiMUS, D'Orbic/ny. Paleont. Fran9. Terr. Cret., Supp., p. 24. 



4 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

B. Testa sub-cylindricd, inferne rotundatd, acuminata ; superne rotundato-quadratd ; 
antice, lateraliterque lined impressd leviter notatd. 

Shell sub-cylindrical, slightly flattened both on the front and sides of the upper part, 
rounded below, and tapering gradually to a blunt point ; with a slight furrow down the 
upper part in front, and a slight furrow down the upper part of the middle of each side ; 
opening oval. 

Length, 2 inches ; greatest breadth, yV^hs of an inch. 

Found by Mr. Saxby, in the Chloritic Marl of Bonchurch, in the Isle of Wight ; found 
also in the Red Chalk of Yorkshire, and in the Gault of Folkstone, 

This species is usually confounded with Belemnites minimm of the Gault, from which 
it is to be distinguished by a more cylindrical form, the slightly squared oval opening, and 
shortness of its lateral furrows. B. minimus on the contrary is spindle-shaped, with a round 
opening, and a double line impressed on each side, which reaches nearly to the point. 

Professor Phillips first pointed out the necessity of separating the two species (' Geol, 
Yorksh.,' vol. i, p. 46), and called this one B. Listen, although that name had previously 
been applied by Dr. Mantell to the other species. Lister undoubtedly had the two species 
before him when he wrote ; but his name having been since restricted by all authors to 
the common Gault species, which has been called indiscriminately B. minimus and B. 
Listeria it would increase the confusion to apply either of those names to this species, 
which may therefore pass under M. D'Orbigny's name of B. ultinms. 

Plate I, fig. 17, a, b, c. Three views of Mr. Saxby's specimen, from the Chloritic 

Marl of Bonchurch : the point having been worn away, its 
outline is restored from another specimen. 



Belemnitella, B'Orhigny. 

Animal unknown, enclosing a straight, elongated, conical, or fusiform calcareous 
shell or guard, more or less pointed below, and pierced above with a conical cavity or 
alveolus, in which is lodged the phragmacone, a hollow horny cone, divided into chambers 
by nearly horizontal septa, which are perforated on the anterior or ventral margin by a 
siphuncle. Wall of the alveolus divided on the anterior side by a perpendicular slit, which 
remains open above, but is gradually closed below, where its place is marked by a groove 
on the outside of the shell, and a corresponding groove on the inside of the alveolus. 
Back of the exterior of the shell marked by two longitudinal depressions, which in some 
species are connected with compUcated vascular impressions. 

The remains of Belemnitella hitherto found in the Chalk, in this country, are limited 
to the calcareous shell ; in addition to which portions of the phragmacone are preserved 
in the specimens of B. mucronata found in the Cretaceous Sandstone of Maestricht and 
Ciply. 



BELEMNITELLA. 5 

The genus Belemnitella was separated from Belenmites by M. D'Orbigny, on account 
of the slit down the front of the alveolus, and the vascular impressions on the back and 
sides of the shell, which are wanting in Belenmites; the latter character is most strongly 
developed in B, mucronata and B. quadrata, and but faintly seen in B. lanceolaia and 
B. plena. These characters seem a slight foundation for a separate genus; but the 
division has been generally adopted. All the Belemnitellae, yet known, belong to the Chalk. 

The Belemnitellae may be divided into two sections, depending on the form and lining 
of the alveolar cavity : in B. mucronata and B. lanceolata the alveolus is a regular cone, 
with a rounded base, of which the apex forms an angle of about 20 degrees ; the cavity is 
lined by a smooth continuous shelly layer, which in the fossils is denser, and less 
crystalline than the rest of the shell ; this cavity is filled by the phragmacone, and is 
slightly marked by the edges of the septa. 

In B. quadrata the lower part of the cavity for about one third of an inch is in the 
form of a cone, with a round base, of which the apex has an angle of about 20° ; this is 
lined with a smooth shelly layer, and was evidently destined to receive the phragmacone. 
The cavity then widens out suddenly, and becomes nearly square ; this upper angular part 
has no special lining, but is rough, with irregular rings marking the growth of the shell ; 
the anterior slit reaches a little way into the lo^ver part of the cavity. It has been 
suggested, that the upper angular part of the cavity may be due to decay ; but its form is 
too constant and regular to be so explained. 

The Swedish species B. subventricosa of Wahlenberg {B. mamillatus, Nills., B. scanicB, 
Blainv.) has a cavity of analogous form to B. quadrata, with an irregularly triangular 
aperture above. M. Konig figured this species under the name of Pawillus belemnoideus 
(Icones, No. 218), apparently regarding its pecuHar form of cavity as a sufficient generic 
character. But, as at present, we do not know the form of the phragmacone of either of 
these species, we cannot estimate the importance of the difference in the form of the cavity. 

The vascular impressions are very differently developed in the different species of 
Belemnitella ; they all have two depressions which extend down the sides of the posterior 
part ; at the edge of the cavity these depressions are nearly as broad as the space between 
them, they diverge slightly and become narrower in their course downwards, and termi- 
nate near the apex of the shell, almost as near to the anterior as to the posterior side. 
These two depressions are usually all that we see of the vascular markings on B. lanceolata 
and B. plena, and on worn specimens of the other species; but on well-preserved 
specimens of B. mucronata and B. quadrata they are bounded on each side by an 
impressed line, from which spread off a number of branches, dividing and subdividing 
with great complication, which cover the sides and front of the shell. 

Casts of the alveolar cavity of Belemnitellae are frequently found in the flint of the Upper 
Chalk, which sometimes show more clearly the form of the cavity than can be seen in the 
shells themselves ; the two woodcuts a and b are copied with Dr. Mantell's permission, 
from the second edition of his ' Geological Excursions round the Isle of Wight,' p. 440 ; 



rOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 



the specimen they represent was found in the Chalk near Ventnor, and is in the Cabinet of 
Mr. S. H. Beckles. Fig. b shows the upper part of one side of \)sm& phragmacone apparently 
complete ; the upper transverse lines are too sinuous to represent the edges of the septa, 
which, as far as we know them, are nearly horizontal. Perhaps, the lower parallel and 
nearly horizontal lines may mark the edges of the septa, and the upper waving lines may 
indicate the growth of the margin of the phragmacone, which seems to have been 
furnished with two lateral processes. 

In fig. A, the cast displays very clearly the complicated groove running down the back 
of the alveolar cavity. 





Fig. A 



Fig.B 



1. Belemnitella mucronata, Schlotheim, Sp. Plate I, figs. 1, 2, and 3. 

Belemnites, 1° species : Breyn, de Belemnitis, figs. 1 — 6. 
Belemnites mucronatus, Schlotheim. Petref., p. 47, No. 4. 

— — Mantell. Sussex, t. xvi, fig. 1. 

— — Nilsson. Petrif. Saec, t. ii, fig. 1. 

— — Sowerby. Min. Conch., t. 600, figs. 2 and 4. 
Belemnites electrikus. Miller. Geol. Tr., 2d series, vol. ii, t. viii, figs. 18 — 21. 
AcTiNOCAMAX VEKUS ? Miller. Loc. cit., t. ix, figs. 17 and 18. 
Belemnitella mucronata, D'Orbigny. Paleeont. Fran9. Terr. Cre't., t. vii. 

— — Geol. of Russia and the Ural Mountains, vol. ii, t. xliii, 

figs. 1 and 4, not figs. 2 and 3. 

B. Testa subcylindricd, impressionibus duabus vascularibus ramosis notatd, antice 
fissuratd, postice obtusd mucronata ; aperturd subrotundd ; alveola conico excentrico. 

Shell elongated, subcyhndrical, widening very shghtly above, obtuse below, with a 
distinct rounded point. Opening circular. Alveolus forming a regular hollow cone, \\ath 
a round base, and an apex of 18° to 20°, which is considerably nearer to the anterior than 
to the posterior side of the shell ; the position of the septa may be faintly traced on the 
Hning of the alveolus. The fissure extends to within half an inch of the apex of the 
cavity, but may be traced to the bottom, on the inside, by a continued depression ; another 



BELEMNITELLA. 7 

impressed line runs down the dorsal side of the cavity. The vascular impressions are 
usually well-marked, and cover a large part of the surface, they branch oflF from a pair of 
double hues, which commence near together on the two sides of the back, and separate 
gradually as they extend downwards to near the point. 

B, mucronata is nearly allied to B. lanceolata ; it may be recognised by a more 
cyhndrical form with a distinct mucro, by its weU-marked vascular impressions, and by 
the eccentricity of the alveolar cavity. 

In a fine specimen from Norwdch, measuring 3^ inches in length, the greatest diameter 
is fths of an inch, and the fissure extends externally |ths of an inch. But all the 
specimens found in this country are broken off at the top, where the walls of the alveolus 
are very thin. They are found in the Maestrict Sandstone with the upper part much 
better preserved, the whole beiug 6 inches long, the alveolus spreading out at top to a 
width of above an inch, and with an external fissm'e 2^ inches long. 

Found everywhere in the Upper Chalk of the South of England, and particularly 
abundant in Norfolk. It is also found in the Upper Chalk of France, Germany, Belgium, 
Sweden, and Russia. Also in the Cretaceous Sands of Maestrict and Ciply near Mons, 
and at Faxoe in Denmark. 



2. Belemnitella lanceolata, Schlotheim, Sp. Plate I, figs. 4 — 6. 

Belemnites, 2" species: Breyn, de Belemxitis, figs. 7 — 10. 

— LAXCEOLATUS, Schlotheim. Petrefactenkuude, p. 49, No. 8. 

— MUCRONATUS, Brong. and Cuvier, t. iii, fig. 1 ? 

— — Blainville. Belemnites, t. i, fig. 12. 

— — Sowerby. Min. Conch., t. 600, fig. 1, excluding all the 

other figures. 

— — Woodward. Geol. Norfolk, p. 49. 

Belemxitella mucronata, var. fusiforme, D'Orbigny. Geol. of Russia and the 

Ural Mountains, vol. ii, t. xliii, figs. 2 
and 3. 

B. Testa elongatd, fusiformi ; antice subdilatatd, Jissuratd ; postice acuminatd ; 
aperturd subrotundd ; alveolo conico^ centrali. 

Shell elongated, fusiform, widening at the opening, then somewhat contracted, and 
again enlarging to about two thirds its length, whence it gradually tapers off to a 
point. Alveolus shghtly oval above, cu'cular below, forming a regular hollow^ cone, of 
which the apex with an angle of 20° is nearly on the central axis of the shell ; the 
alveolar cavity is lined by a distinct shelly layer, faintly marked by numerous horizontal 
rings, very near each other in the lower part, and becoming gradually more distant 
upw^ards, and is sht down its anterior side by a fissure which extends within nearly to the 
apex of the cavity; but is pailially closed on the outside by the new layers of shell, which 
in old specimens cover about half an inch of the lower part of the original fissure. Another 



8 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

impressed line runs down the back of the alveolar cavity. Vascular impressions apparently 
resembling those of B. mucronata are faintly marked and frequently obliterated. 

This Belemnite, which was well distinguished by the earlier writers on the subject, has 
been coe founded by all later authors with B. mucronata, from which it is distinguished 
externally, by its less cyhudrical form, and fainter vascular impressions ; and internally, 
by the central position, and more circular section of the alveolus. 

Breyn, one of the earhest writers who made an approach towards the true nature of 
Belemnites, distinguished the present species from B. mucronata without naming either, 
and has given good figures of both, as Species 1 and 2. He was followed by Schlotheim, 
who, referring to Breyn's figures, names his 1st species B. rnucronatus, and his 2d species 
B. lanceolatus, which names we must adopt, on the principle of priority; an unlucky re- 
mark of Schlotheim that, perhaps, JMontfort's Hibolithus Jiastatus might prove a variety of 
his B. lanceolatus, has led both D'Orbigny and Bronn to throw aside Schlotheim's name 
B. lanceolatus, as a synonym of B. hastatiis ; the slightest reference to Breyn would have 
saved them from this error, as that author's 2d species belongs clearly to the Genus 
Belemnitella, the slit down the front of the alveolar cavity being well shown in the 
figures, and clearly described in the text. 

Miller was probably aware of the difference between the two species, since finding this 
one figured by Blainville as B. rnucronatus, he gave to the original B. rnucronatus the new 
name of B. electri?ius. Woodward living in Norfolk, where the two species are abundant, 
was well acquainted with both, and distinguishes them clearly in his Catalogue, as 
B. rnucronatus tapering off to a point, and B, electrinus obtuse, with a mammillated 
point. 

Sowerby, Min. Con., t. 600, threw the two species together, figuring them both under 
the name of B. rnucronatus, and the same is done by M. D'Orbigny, in the second volume 
of the ' Geol. of Russia, where they are well figured as Belemnitella mucronata, variete 
fusiforme and variete renjiee ; but in the ' Paleontologie Francaise ' we have only the true 
B. mucronata, well figm-ed and described, without any allusion to the other form. 

3. Belemnitella quad rata, Bef ranee, Sp. Plate I, figs. 7 — 11. 

Belemnites quadkatus, Blainville. Belemnites, t. i, fig. 9. 

— GRANULATUs, Sowcrhy. Min. Conch., t. 600, figs. 3 and 5. 

Belemxox pustulatum, Kcenig. Icones Foss. Sect., No. 216. 
Belemnitella quad rata, D'Orbigny. Paleont. Fran^. Terr. Cret., t. vi, figs. 5 — 10. 

B. testa suhcylindricd, granulatd ; apice obtusiusculo mucronato ; aperturd subquadratd : 
alveolo in/erne rotundato conico, superne expanso subquadrato. 

Shell nearly cylindrical, rounded towards the apex, which ends in a distinct point ; 
alveolus wide, and four-sided above ; round and conical below, with a short sht on the 
anterior side, which reaches into the romided part of the cavity; surface almost entirely 



BELEMNITELLA. 9 

covered with small granulations; vascular impressions strongly marked in the young shell, 
but somewhat concealed by the granulations in the full-grown shell. 

The external form of B. quadrata is nearly the same as that of some varieties of 
B. mucronata ; so that worn specimens which have lost both their outer surface and the 
upper part of the alveolus may easily be confounded ; and there has been confusion in 
consequence in the synonyms. But it is Avell distinguished both by the granulations 
of the surface and the square opening. 

The lower part of the alveolar cavity, lined with a distinct, smooth, shelly layer, is of 
the form of a rounded cone, about a quarter of an inch deep ; above this, the cavity 
suddenly widens out, and changes its character; it is irregularly four-sided, and the 
surface has no special lining, but is roughened by the rings of growth of the shell. 
The fissure is shallow, and reaches to the top of the lower division of the cavity. 
Unfortunately, the Phragmacone of this species is not known ; it would probably corre- 
spond in form with the lower part of the cavity only. 

Length, 2^ inches ; greatest breadth, yV^^^ ^^ ^^ ii^ch ; cavity, f ths of an inch, of 
which the broader part occupies ^th, and the narrow rounded cone, ^th of an inch. 

B. quadrata is found in the middle beds of the chalk of the counties of Kent, Surrey, 
and Sussex, but is no where a common species. It has also been found in the upper 
chalk of Northfleet. 

It occurs, according to M. D'Orbigny, in the white chalk of Rheims in France, and 
of Vise in Belgium. 

4. Belemnitella plena, Blainv., Sp. Plate I, figs. 12 — 16. 

Breyn. De Belemnitis, fig. 1 5 ? 
Belemnites plenus, Blainville. Belemnites, t. i, fig. 6. 

— LAXCEOLATUS, Sowerby. Min. Conch., t. 600, figs. 8 and 9. 

— — Geinitz. Quadersansteingebii'ge, t. vi, figs. 3 — 5. 
Belemnitella vera, D'Orbigny. Paleont. Franc. Terr. Cr^t., Suppt., t. ii. 

B. testa elongatd fiisiformi, sublavi, siiperne rotundato-trigond canaliculatd, medio 
rotundatd dilatatd; apice acuminato. 

Shell elongated; when young cylindrical, Avith a tapering point; when full-grown 
fusiform, swelling out below the middle, and tapering below to a point : front marked 
with a slight furrow ; a broad longitudinal depression on each side of the back, giving 
somewhat of a three-sided form to the upper part of the shell. All the specimens have the 
walls of the alveolar cavity broken off", lea\dng usually a projecting conical end, in the 
centre of which the point of the alveolus may be distinguished. 

The specimen, fig. 12, belonging to Mr. Morris, has fortunately the lower part of the 
cavity preserved, but not enough to show any trace of a fissure ; therefore the supposed 
fissure figured by M. D'Orbigny, pi. ii, figs. 2, 4, and 7, in a more truncated specimen, 





10 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

must be due to decay. Geinitz has figured the lower portion of the Phragmacone, but his 
figure is hardly intelligible. 

Although the specimens of this Belemnite are found truncated at difierent attitudes, 
and the fracture is either nearly flat or more or less conical, there are common characters 
in the broken ends of all, which are without doubt connected with the manner of growth 
of the shell. There are usually two more prominent ridges on each side, and three slighter 
ridges on the back. The sides of the angular cone thus formed, appear to have some 
analogy with the angular opening of B. quadrata, and render it probable that B. lanceolata 
will be found to belong to the same division of the genus as that species. 

M. D'Orbigny has named this species B. vera, on the supposition that it is the 
Actinocamax verus of ]\Iiller ; but the description given by that author proves that, as 
Mr, Sowerby correctly observed in the ' Mineral Conchology,' A. verm is a worn specimen 
of B. mucronata. Miller describes his species as having " two longitudinal, towards the 
apex branching, impressions of blood-vessels." He also states that it is often found in 
flints. Both the description and the placing in it in the chalk with flints are decisive 
against regarding it as B. lanceolata. Every species of Belemnite, when rolled and worn 
at the top, may present a form similar to that of j\Iiller's figure 17 ; and the B. mucronata 
especially, in decaying peels off" in concentric layers, as in his figures 11, 12, and 13, 
' Geological Transactions,' 2d series, vol. ii, pi. 9. It is probable that when describing 
Articonamaw verus, Miller may have had before him worn specimens of several species of 
Belemnite. Such names founded on misconception had better be allowed to drop. 
But in this instance, as Miller's description applies to B. mucronata, there is no room for 
his name of J. verus. The name first in point of priority is B. plenus of Blainville, which 
has consequently been adopted. Sowerby's name, B. lanceolatus, is not only posterior to 
Blainville, but had been previously applied by Schlotheim to another species. 

Length, 3^ inches ; greatest breadth, fths of an inch. 

Common throughout the grey chalk of the South of England, and found in the lower 
beds of the chalk in Belgium, Germany, and the North of France. 



Nautilus, Linn. 

Shell discoidal, spiral, chambered, compressed or ventricose, with contiguous whorls 
regularly convoluted on the same plane, the last partially or entirely concealing the previous 
whorl ; chambers separated by transverse, concave septa, with simple sinuous margins, 
and traversed near their centre by a continuous siphuncle ; the last chamber large, and' 
capable of containing the animal. 



NAUTILUS. 11 

1. Nautilus l^evigatus, If Orb. Plate II, figs. 1 and 2. 

Nautilus l^evigatus, D'Orbigny. Paleont. rran9. Terr. Cr^t., pi. xvii. 

N. testa glohosd, Icevi, umbilico minimo aut nullo ; aperturd semi-circulari ; septis parum 
arcuatis ; siphinculo subcentrali. 

Shell globose, smooth, with the back and sides uniformly rounded, and a very faint 
line running along the middle of the back ; umbilicus very small and entirely concealed 
in the inner whorls ; septa slightly arched, with nearly straight margins ; siphuncle a little 
in front of the centre j mouth nearly semi-circular, but rather wider than high, deeply 
indented by the preceding whorl, with a broad shallow mesial sinus. 

This shell attains a large size. A specimen from Brighton measures 4^ inches in 
diameter and ^\ inches in breadth. 

N. IcBvigatus is one of the commonest of the cretaceous, species, and is found throughout 
the whole range of the Chalk, viz., in the Upper Chalk near Brighton ; in the Middle Chalk 
near Maidstone, Hemel Hempstead, and Tring ; in the Grey Chalk at Dover and Lewes ; 
in the Chloritic Marl of Bonchurch in the Isle of Wight; and in the Chalk mth siliceous 
grains at Chard stock and on the coast of Dorsetshire. It is found in France in the Upper 
Green Sand, the Lower and Middle Chalk. 

The only cretaceous species of Nautilus for which this could be mistaken, are N. 
BoucJiardianus, D'Orb. andiV. simplex, Sow. {N. Clementinus ? D'Orb.) both of which have 
a more marked umbilicus, and a depression on the ventral margin of the septa ; the latter 
is also a less globose shell, and has the siphuncle nearer the ventral than the dorsal margin. 

2. Nautilus expansus, Sow. Plate II, figs. 3 — 5. 

Nautilus expansus, Sowerby. Min. Conch., t. 458, fig. I. 

— Archiacianus, If Orhigny . Paleont. Franc. Terr. Cret., t. xxi. 

N. testa injlatd, later aliter compressiiisculd, umbilicatd, subtiliter striatd ; umbilico 
sub-carinato ; aperturd lata sub-pentagond; septis iindulatis ; siphunculo sub-centrali. 

Shell globose, with sloping slightly flattened sides and a sharply defined umbilicus ; 
surface elegantly marked by fine sharp lines of growth, which are deeply incurved in front ; 
whorls increasing rapidly in size and nearly concealing the preceding whorls ; septa very 
flexuous; siphuncle within the centre of the septum; mouth about as broad as high, 
somewhat pentangular, rounded in front, with nearly straight sloping sides deeply 
indented by the inner whorl, and with a deep, broad, rounded sinus. 

Diameter 2^ inches, breadth IJ inch. 

N. expansus is confined to the lowest bed of the Chalk ; it is rare in the Chalk Marl of 
Hamsey near Lewes, and in the Chloritic Mai-1 of Bonchurch in the Isle of Wight ; and 



12 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

abundant in the Chalk with sihceoiis grains at Chaldon and Man-of-War Cove in Dorset- 
shire, and Chardstock in Somersetshire. M. D'Orbigny cites it from the Craie Chloritee 
of ]\lount Ste. Catherine, near Rouen. 

The figure in the ' Mineral Conchology ' is taken from a specimen somewhat expanded 
at the mouth by pressure ; but the form of the umbilicus and the fine sharp striae leave no 
doubt of its identity with N. Archiacianus, D'Orb. 



3. Nautilus Deslongchampsianus, If Orb. Plate HI, figs. I and 2. 

Nautilus elegaxs, part. Mantell. Fossils of the South Downs, t. xxi, fig. 8. 
— Deslongchampsianus, D'Orbigny. Paleont. Fran9. Terr. Cret., t. xx. 

N. testa s^ib-glohosd, umhilicatd, transversim costatd et longitudinaliter striatd; wnbilico 
carinato ; costis elatis jlexuosis ; striis tenuihus dectissatis ; aperturd semi-ovali. 

Shell sub-globose, umbilicated, elegantly ornamented with sharp elevated transverse 
flexuous ribs, which are usually crossed by thin longitudinal lines ; the latter are often 
obliterated in ill-preserved casts ; the ribs rise within the umbilicus and are bent at a 
sharp angle over its carinated margin ; they then sweep forward in a bold curve, and form 
a deep sinus on the back, where they occasionally divide into two ; the ribs are steep on 
their front side and sloping behind, thus forming a series of steps on the surface ; the edge 
of the umbilicus is angular or raised into a slight keel. 

The longitudinal lines are very prominent in some specimens, but can hardly be 
discerned in others ; but the species can always be distinguished by the form of the ribs, 
the deep and angular umbilicus. It is common in the Grey Chalk of Lewes, Dover, the 
Isle of Wight, &c., and in the Chalk with siliceous grains of Chardstock, Somersetshire. 
In France it abounds in the Craie CJdoritee of Mount Ste. Catherine, near Rouen. 

Diameter 2i inches, breadth If inch. 



4. Nautilus elegans, Sowerbt/. Plate HI, fig. 3 ; and Plate IV, fig. 1. 

Nautilus elegans. Sowerby. Min. Con., t. 116. 

— — Mantell. Fossils of the South Downs, t. xx, fig. 1 . 

— — D'Orbigny. Paleont. Fran9. Terr. Cret., t. xix. 

N. testa globosd, costatd ; costis cequalibus, rotundatis, suh-jlexuosis ; aperturd semi- 
circulari ; siphunculo inter dorsum et septi centrum posito ; umbilico minimo. 

Shell globose, uniformly rounded, ribbed ; umbilicus slightly marked on the outer but 
entirely concealed in the inner whorls ; ribs equal, rounded, and regular, bending in a 
simple curve from the umbilicus to the back, where they form a broad shallow sinus ; 
aperture semi-oval, a little higher than broad, deeply indented by the preceding whorl. 
Siphuncle placed about half way between the centre of the septum and the back. 



NAUTILUS. 13 

Diameter 6^ inches, breadth 5 inches. A gigantic specimen, sent me by Mr. Tyler 
from Hamsey near Lewes, reaches 11^ inches in its greatest diameter, and the ribbing 
continues of about the same breadth throughout. This species is common in the Grey 
Chalk of the South of England and in the lower beds of the Chalk of France. 

For many years all the ribbed Nautih found in the Chalk were confounded together 
under the name of JV. elegans. Sowerby separated N. radiatus. But we owe to M. 
D'Orbigny the clear distinction of the different species, which may be known as follows : 

N. elegans is the most globose shell of the group, and has the smallest umbilicus ; it is 
also to be known by the position of the siphuncle between the back and the centre of 
the septum. 

N. pseudo-elegans is rather less globose than the preceding, has a more distinct 
umbilicus, broader and fewer ribs, and the siphuncle between the ventral margin and the 
centre of the septum ; the two species are so much alike that the only character to be 
relied on for distinguishing them is the position of the siphuncle. 

N. radiatus is easily recognised by a flatter form, with sloping sides, large umbilicus 
and deep septa with a sinuous margin ; the siphuncle occupies nearly the same position 
as in the last ; but there is also a marked depression of the septum close to the ventral 
margin, which is not found in either N. elegans ox pseudo-elegans. 

N. Neocomiensis has flat and nearly parallel sides, a very large umbilicus, the ribs 
much bent on the back, the siphuncle between the centre and the ventral margin, but 
without the ventral depression of the septum. 

N. Deslongchampsianus is easily distinguished by the cross longitudinal ribs, and even 
if these are lost, by the elevated edge of the umbilicus. 

\w all these species the ribbing is only seen in the exposed portion of the outer whorl, 
being concealed within by a layer of shell formed by the ventral fold of the mantle. 
Thus specimens which have lost the outer whorl may appear partially or entirely smooth. 



5. Nautilus pseudo-elegans, D'Orb. Plate IV, fig. 2. 

Nautilus pseudo-elegaxs, D'Orbigny. Paleont. Franc. Terr. Cret., t. viii and ix. 

N. Testa ovatd, subcompressd, costatd, umbilicatd ; costis (Bqualibus, rotundatis, 
Jlexuosis ; umbilico parvo ; aperturd senii-ovali ; septis arcuatis ; siplmnculo inter ventrem 
et septi centrum posito. 

Shell ovate, ribbed, with a small well-marked umbilicus ; ribs broad, rounded, and 
flexuous, with a deep sinus on the back ; aperture semi-oval, higher than broad, deeply 
indented by the preceding whorl ; septa arched, with the siphuncle between the centre 
and the ventral margin. 

Diameter 7 inches, breadth 4 inches. 

Common in the Grey Chalk of Lewes and elsewhere. Professor E. Forbes appears to 



14 FOSSIL MOLLUSC A OF THE CHALK. 

have seen specimens from the Lower Green Sand,* to which Formation M. D'Orbigny 
states that it is confined in France. 

M. D'Orbigny separated this species from TV! elegans, which it closely resembles ; it is 
less globose, has broader and more flexuous ribs, deeper septa, and a more distinct 
umbilicus ; but it is best distinguished by the position of the siphuncle, w^hich in this 
species is situated between the inner margin and the centre of the septum, and in 
N. elegans is nearer to the back. Notwithstanding this character, most writers seem 
disposed to throw them together. 

6. Nautilus radiatus, Sow. Plate V, figs. 1 and 2. 

Nautilus radiatus, Sowerby. Min. Conch., t. 356. 

— — UOrhigny. Paleont. Franc. Terr. Cret., t. xiv. 

N. Testa ovatd, subcompressd, costatd, late umbilicatd ; costis latis, cequalibus, 
Jtexuosis ; septis arcuatis, margine Jlexuosis, ad ventrem depressis ; siphunculo inter 
ventrem et septorum centrum posiio. 

Shell gibbose, with sloping flattish sides and rounded back, ornamented with broad 
iiexuous equal ribs ; septa, with a flexuous margin low at the sides and produced at the 
back, marked with a deep depression close to the edge of the preceding whorl ; siphuncle 
between the centre and the ventral margin ; aperture semi-oval, considerably higher than 
broad, slightly indented by the preceding whorl ; umbilicus large, exposing all the inner 
whorls, t 

Diameter 7 inches, breadth 4 inches. 

Common in the Chalk with siliceous grains at Chardstock in Somersetshire, and 
also found in the Grey Chalk near Dover, Guildford, &c. Li Professor Forbes's ' List of 
Lower Green Sand Fossils' it is mentioned as found at Atherfield and Sandgate, and 
M. D'Orbigny quotes it in France from the Lower Chalk, the Upper and Lower Green 
Sands. 

N. radiatus is easily distinguished from N. pseudo-elegans by its large umbilicus, the 
flexuous margin, and the ventral depression of the septa ; the latter character separates it 
also from N. Neocomiensis. 

* Journal of Geol. Society, vol. i, p. 353. 

f The ribs begin to show themselves when the shell is about one inch in diameter ; previously, it is 
ornamented with fine sharp elevated lines marking the growth of the shell, crossed by finer longitudinal 
lines, as seen in fig. 2 ; a similar ornament is found in many species of Nautilus when young. 



NAUTILUS. 15 

7. Nautilus Neocomiensis, B'Orb. Plate V, fig. 8. 

Nautilus Neocomiexsis, B'Orbigny. Paleont. Fran9. Terr. Cret., t. xi. 

N. Testa injlatd, lateraliter cotnpressd, late iimbilicatd, costatd; costis latisjlexuosis, 
dorso suh-angulatis ; septis marline paulum Jlexuosis ; siplmnculo inter ventrem et septorum 
centrum posito. 

Shell gibbous, with flattened sides and a broad umbilicus, ornamented with rounded 
flexuous ribs, which are less marked at the sides but broad and large on the back, where 
they bend so rapidly as to form an almost angular sinus ; the sides of the whorls being 
nearly parallel, and the whorls increasing but slowly in breadth, the whole shell has a 
flattened form by which it is easily recognised ; margins of the septa slightly curved ; 
siphuncle half-way between the centre and the inner margin of the septa. 

We have only seen one small specimen from the Grey Chalk, which we can refer to 
this species ; it is from Urchfont near Devizes, in the Collection of i\Ir. Cunnington, and is 
2 inches in its greatest diameter and \\ inch in breadth; although a good deal broken, 
it shows all the peculiar characters of the species. This species is more common in the 
Lower Green Sand of Dorking, Atlierfield, Saudgate, &c., where it sometimes reaches 
above 7 inches in diameter. M. D'Orbigny quotes it as common in the lower beds of the 
Middle Division of the Neocomian Formation in France. 

The only species with which this can be confounded is N. radiatus, from which it may 
be known by its flatter form, larger umbilicus, septa less flexuous and without any de- 
pression at the ventral margin, and the more angular sinus of the ribs on the back. 

8. Nautilus undulatus, Sow. Plate V, fig. 4. 

Nautilus undulatus, Sowerby. Mineral Coiichology, t. xl. 

N. Testd gihhosd ; junior e l(Em,laterihu8 suh-compressis, dorso lato-rotundato ; adultd 
lateraliter exjjansd, transversim undulato-costatd ; septorum margine Jlexuoso ; siplmnculo 
sub-ventrali ; aperturd semi-ovali ; umbilico clauso. 

Shell when young, smooth and regular, with flattish sides, a broad rounded back, and 
semi-oval aperture ; when about two inches in diameter, it enlarges rapidly, expands at the 
sides, and begins to undulate over the back ; when adult, the whole shell is ribbed in 
broad, coarse undulations, which are deepest on the back, but ill-defined on the sides ; 
back marked by a line at first shghtly raised, which in the old shell forms a ridge 
between the undulations ; umbilicus covered ; septa flexuous ; siphuncle near the ventral 
margin. 

We have only seen one specimen of this species from the Chalk, which was found by 
Mr. Wiest in the Chalk with siliceous grains of Chardstock; it is a young shell. 



16 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

2 J inches in diameter and IJ inch broad at the mouth; it is interesting, as it shows 
the change from the neatness of the young shell to the coarse irregular wavy form of the 
adult. 

This shell is found more plentifully in the upper 'part of the Lower Green Sand, where 
it reaches a diameter of 4 or 5 inches. M. D'Orbigny has not met with it in France. 

When young, iV. undulatus has considerable resemblance to N. largilliertianuH, from 
which it is distinguished by its closed umbilicus ; in its undulated stage it cannot be 
confounded with any other species. 



9. Nautilus largilliertianus, D'Orh. Plate VI, figs. 1 and 2. 

Nautilus largilliertianus, B'Orbigny. Paleont. Fran9. Terr. Cret., t. xviii. 

N. Testa discoided, compressd, umbilicatd, delicatim striata; lateribus complanatis ; 
dorso planiiiscido, in medio lineato ; umbilico magno, margine declivi ; aperturd ovato- 
rhomboided ; septorum marginibus Jlexuosissimm ; sipliunculo sub-ventrali. 

Shell discoidal, with fine lines of growth which are not seen in the cast; with flat 
sides and a somewhat flattened back, marked with a shghtly raised mesial line ; umbilicus 
large, with perpendicular sides, exposing all the inner whorls ; aperture rhomboidal 
with rouuded corners, deeply indented by the preceding whorl ; margin of the septa very 
flexuous ; siphuncle very near to the inner margin. In old shells the back is slightly 
undulated. 

Diameter 2 inches, breadth -|ths of an inch. 

This elegant shell is easily distinguished from the other Cretaceous species by the 
rhomboidal form of the whorls, well-defined umbilicus, and flexuous septa ; the striae are 
only seen in very well-preserved specimens. 

Found occasionally in the Grey Chalk at Lewes, and in the Chloritic Marl of the 
Isle of Wight ; more common in the Chalk with siliceous grains of Chardstock and 
Chaldon. 

M. D'Orbigny cites it as common in the Lower Chalk of the North of France. 

10. Nautilus fleuriausianus, B'Orb. Plate VI, fig. 3. 

Nautilus fleuriausianus, D'Orbiyny. Paleont. Franc. Terr. Cret., t. xv. 
Nautilus Sowerbyanus? UOrbigmj. Ibid., t. xvi. 

N. Testa lateribm compressd, durso rotundatd, sub-umbilicatd, lavi ; aperturd semi- 
ovatd ; septorum marginibus jlexuosis ; umbilico minimo ; sipliunculo sub-centrali. 

Shell with sloping and somewhat flattened sides and rounded back, smooth, with a 
very small umbilicus ; mouth semi-oval, higher than wide, deeply indented by the pre- 



NAUTILUS. 17 

ceding whorl ; margin of the septa flexuous ; siphuncle sub-central, but rather nearer to 
the ventral than to the dorsal margin. 

Diameter 3J inches, breadth 2 inches. 

Found occasionally in the Chalk with siliceous grains, at Chardstock. ]\I. D'Orbigny 
quotes it as common in beds of the same age in the North and West of France. 

Our specimens have a rounder back and more flexuous septa than M. D'Orbigny's 
figure of N.Jleuriausianus, in which characters they approach his figure of N. Soioerhyanus, 
from which they are distinguished by a smaller umbilicus. I am inclined to regard them 
both as one species, and have adopted the name of N. fleuriausimim, as the other would 
be liable to confusion with the N. Sowerbii of the ' Mineral Conchology.' I have only 
seen casts of the N. fleuriamianm, which do not show the siphunculus, and have 
described its position upon the authority of M. D'Orbigny's figure and description. 

11. Nautilus Fittoni, Sliarpe. Plate VI, fig. 4. 

Nautilus compeessus, Fitton. Trans. Geol. Soc, 2cl series, vol. iv, pp. 203 and 
367, Note. 

N. testa lavi, compressd, complanatd, umbilicatd; laterihus planis, obliquis ; dorso 
angusto, rotundato, i?i medio Ihieato ; umbilico magno ; aperturd truncato-sagittatd, apice 
rotundatd ; siphunculo sub-ventrali ; septtorum marginibus Jlexuosissimis. 

Shell discoidal, smooth ; sides flat, sloping ; back narrow and rounded, marked with a 
faint line along the middle ; umbihcus large, allowing the inner whorls to be seen, its 
walls nearly perpendicular ; aperture sagittate with the angles rounded off"; septa with a 
very flexuous margin ; siphuncle very near the lower margin of the whorls. 

Diameter about 3 inches, breadth I inch. 

This shell has a good deal of resemblance to N. Saosbii of Morris, in general form, 
proportions, and flexure of the septa ; but difiers from that species in its rounded back. 

This species was first noticed by Dr. Fitton in the Upper Green Sand, Western Lines 
Isle of Wight, and placed in the Museum of the Geological Society ; it is called in his lists 
N. compressus, which name had unfortunately been previously apphed to another species. 
It has since been found by Mr. Wiest in the Chalk with siliceous grains of Chardstock ; , 
both of the specimens are imperfect. It is named after the original discoverer. 

Ammonites, Bruguiere. 

Animal unknown : shell chambered, discoidal, compressed or ventricose, spiral, with 
contiguous whorls regularly convoluted on the same plane, the last partially or entirely 
concealing the previous whorl : chambers separated by transverse flexuous septa, deeply 
sinuated towards the edges, divided into branching lobes, and traversed by a continuous 
tube situated at the outer or dorsal edge of the shell ; the last chamber large. 

3 



18 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

Ammonites are distinguished from other genera of discoidal chambered Cephalopods 
by the branching lobes of their mantle, causing the edges of the septa to form a very 
complicated pattern against the side of the whorl, which is seen when the surface is removed 
or worn away. The forms of these lobes have been used, as distinguishing specific 
characters, by Von Buch and many subsequent writers. Although I am not disposed to 
attach so much importance to them as is sometimes done, I have, as far as possible, given 
an outline of the lobes of the septa of each species. 

To facilitate description, Von Buch proposed to restrict the term lohe to the more sub- 
divided and branching portions of the edges of the chamber which extend downward from 
the mouth of the shell, and to call saddles the more rounded and less intersected divisions 
which project upward towards the mouth ; thus the outline of a septum is made up of lohes 
alternating with saddles. The middle of the back of the whorl is occupied by the dorsal 
lohe, opposite to which is the ventral lohe, which, abutting against the previous whorl, is 
always concealed : between these are the lateral lobes and saddles. References to these 
names will be found in the explanation of Plate VH. 

In using these characters, the observer must bear in mind that they vary at different 
ages of the animal, and are therefore practically of less use to the conchologist than might 
be expected. Not only do all the ramifications of" the lobes increase in complexity during 
the whole life of the Ammonite, a mere notch in the young stage growing into a branch 
of its lobe, but the number of lobes may also increase with age. According to M. 
D'Orbigny, all Ammonites have only six lobes at the earliest period of their existence ; 
namely, the dorsal and ventral lobes, and the superior and inferior lateral lobes on each side 
of the whorl. In some species this number continues the same through life ; but more 
commonly the lobes increase in number with the growth of the shell, small auxiliary/ lobes 
being added on each side near the junction with the inner whorl. The number of auxiliary 
lobes varies in different species ; but as this depends on the age of the shell, they form a 
character of little service. Moreover, as the lobes are most branched near the edge of the 
whorl, many of the minor ramifications are obliterated on the worn cast of an Ammonite. 

The two sides of the shell being usually symmetrical, it is only necessary to figure the 
outline of the septa of the back and one side. But there are some species of Ammonites 
in which the siphuncle, instead of being placed at the middle of the back, is often found 
more or less on one side ; and when this is the case, the lobes of the septa are also dis- 
placed to the same extent, so that the tube remains in the middle of the dorsal lobe. 
Most of those species are symmetrical when young, and the change takes place at very 
different periods of growth in different individuals. This curious irregularity is most often 
seen in A. denarius, Fittoni, splendens, and Lyelli of the Gault, A. Dwncani and Callo- 
viensis of the Kelloway's Rock. The displacement usually consists in shifting the tube to 
one of the angles of the back ; but specimens of A. Calloviensis are found with the tube 
placed near the middle of one of the sides. M. D'Orbigny has illustrated this deformity 
in describing, in the Paleontologie Fran^aise, the species liable to it. 



AMMONITES. 19 

Many species of Ammonites are distinguished by a large lateral process formed on each 
side of the mouth, either when the animal is full-grown or at intervals during its growth. 
Such forms are mostly found in the Oolitic Formations, but J. rostratus, which is common 
in the Upper Green Sand, affords a good example of such a mode of growth. 

In many of the secondary strata are found pairs of shelly plates of very peculiar struc- 
ture, which have received various names, and still more discordant explanations, from 
different authors. Parkinson called them Trigonellites^ qxs. Meyer Ajjfi/clms, Deslongchamps 
Milnsteria. They have been thought by many writers to be external bivalve shells of the 
Lamellibranchiate order; or internal shells of Cephalalopods ; Riippell thought some of 
them scales of Reptiles ; some have been regarded as palatal teeth of Fishes ; and M. 
D'Orbigny has lately considered them the side plates of pedunculated Cirrhipedes. But 
the opinion which seems to have most probability in its favour is that the TrigonclHtes were 
the opercida of Ammonites, which view has been ably supported by Voltz;^ the principal 
reasons for this opinion are derived from the structure of the plates being analogous to 
that of many opercula, and their having been often found within the open chamber of 
Ammonites, to the mouths of which their form and size nearly correspond. Each plate is 
triangular, with one straight edge, which laps over or under the corresponding edge of its 
fellow plate. The hues of growth are always seen on the concave side of the plates, show- 
ing that to have been the external surface. Voltz divides the Aptychi (or Trigonellites) 
into three sections : 1st, the cornei, consisting of a single (?) horny plate, with a flexible 
fold down the middle ; 2d, the imhricati, which have a pair of plates with an external 
horny epidermis, covered internally, that is on the convex side, with calcareous layers laid 
over one another like tiles; 3d, the celhdosi, which have a pair of plates with a thick, 
cellular, calcareous layer on the inner or convex surface. The Trifjonellites are rare in the 
Chalk ; those which have been found will be described in connection with the Ammonites 
to which they are supposed to belong. 

In the first volume of the 'Journal of the Geological Society,' p. 232, Mr. Strickland 
has described some supposed opercula of Ammonites, consisting of one semi-oval calcareous 
plate, without any sutm-e, which have been found ni the Lias : no similar form has yet 
been found in the Chalk. 

1. Ammonites complanatus, Mantell. Plate VII, figs. 1 — 3. 

Ammonites complanatus, Mantell. Fossils of the South Downs, p. 118, 

— — Sowerby. Miu. Conch., t. 569, fig. 1. 

— LARGiLLiERTiANUS, D'Orbigiiy. Pale'ont. Frang. Terr. Cret., pi. xcv. 

A. testa discoided, com/pressissimd, Icsviusculd, tenuiter striatd ; striis numerosissimis 
Jlexuosis, umhilicum versus obsoletis, deinde distindis et ad margines dorsi suh-tuherculatis ; 

1 Neues Jahrbuch, 1837, pp. 304 and 432. 



20 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

dorso truncato, lateribus subcarinato, medio planiusculo ; aperturd sagittatd ; anfractibuf< 
interioribus occidtis ; umbilico claiiso. 

Shell discoidal, much compressed, partially smooth, but marked with very numerous 
striae, which are only faintly visible on the middle of the whorl, where they curve away 
from the mouth, and more distinct towards the margin, where they are nearly straight; 
each of the striae is produced into a point projecting beyond the edge of the truncated 
back, thus forming a slight keel on each side of the back ; whorls increasing very rapidly 
in height, and entirely covering the umbihcus; mouth sagittate; lobes of the septa 
numerous, and much subdivided. 

Diameter 8 inches, height of the outer whorl 5 inches, thickness l-^o-ths of an inch. 

Found in the Grey Chalk of Hamsey, near Lewes. The species is very rare ; and I 
have only seen the two specimens figured, which were collected by Dr. Mantell, and are 
now in the British Museum ; M. D'Orbigny states that it is very rare in France, and has 
been found at Rouen and Cassis, in the beds of the same age as in England. 

This species and the next described, A. obtectus, are nearly related, and are remarkable 
for the rapid increase of the height of their w^horls, which entirely close the umbilicus ; and 
also for the great flexure of the upper edges of the lobes of the septa, which project 
forward in the middle of the whorls, in a very unusual degree. 



2. Ammonites obtectus, Sharpe. Plate VH, fig. 4. 

A. testd discoided, compressissimd ; lateribus delicatim costatis : dorso truncato, tri- 
carinaio ; costis numerosissi?)iis, complanatis, medio angidatis et tuberculatis ; carinis 
dorsalibus nodulosis ; aperturd truncato-mgittatd ; anfractibus interioribus occultis ; 
umbilico clauso. 

Shell discoidal, much compressed, wdth slightly convex sides, and a narrow truncated 
back ; ornamented on the sides with numerous flat ribs, which rising at the umbilicus 
slope forward in a straight line to the middle of the whorl, w^hence they bend back at a 
sudden angle, and continue in a slight curve to the dorsal margin, where they terminate ; 
every second or thii'd rib bears a rounded tubercle at the angle, on the middle of the 
whorl ; and here and there a rib is inserted between the others reaching only from the row 
of tubercles to the dorsal margin ; the angle of flexure of the ribs varies with age, being 
at first very obtuse, and changing gradually till it becomes about a right angle ; back 
narrow and truncated, with three keels, which are ornamented with small knobs equal in 
number to the ribs ; each lateral keel is marked ofi" from the side of the whorl by an im- 
pressed line running very near the edge ; whorls increasing very rapidly in height, and 
entirely covering the umbilicus ; section of the whorls sagittate with the point cut off" ; 
septa with long, very narrow, and ramified lobes, which are only partially seen in the 
specimen figm*ed. 



AMMONITES. 21 

Diameter of our only specimen 2| inches, breadth of the apertm-e fths of an inch, 
height of the last whorl Ifths of an inch; but the specimen must have been much 
larger, as it originally had, at least, one more whorl. 

Found by Mr. Wiest at Chardstock, in the Chalk with siliceous grains. 

This elegant shell has some characters which are so rare among the Ammonites, that 
we only know one other species to which to compare it, A. complanatus, Sow. {A. largil- 
liertianus, D'Orb.) ; it agrees with that species in general form, in the embracing 
character of the whorls, covering the umbilicus, and in the cm've of the septa, which 
advance towards the middle of the whorl, and fall back towards the ventral and dorsal 
margins ; from this last character combined with the flexure of the ribs we conjecture that 
the mouth had a sinus in the middle resembling that in the genera Nautilus and 
Belleroplion. The lobes of the septa have been imperfectly seen ; they bear a strong 
analogy to those of A. complanatus, without altogether agreeing with them. The de- 
scription being taken from a single imperfect specimen is necessarily incomplete : this 
specimen appears to be unique. 



3. Ammonites falcatus, Mantell. Plate VII, figs. 5 — 9. 

Ammonites falcatus, Mantell. Fossils of the South Downs, t. xxi, figs. 6 and 12. 

— — Sowerby. Min. Conch., t. 579, fig. 1. 

— — ITOrhigny. Paleont. rran9. Terr. Cret., t. xcix. 

— CDRVATUS, Mantell. Loc. cit., t. xxi, fig. 18. 

— — Sowerby. Min. Couch., t. 5/9, fig. 2. 

A. testa discoided, compressd, bicurvato-costatd, tuberculatd ; tuberculis, costisque 
numero variantibus ; dorso canaliculato, utrinque tuberculato ; umbilico mediocri ; aperturd 
ohlongd. 

Shell discoidal, and flattened, with numerous ribs extending from the umbilicus to the 
edge of the back, in double curves, meeting in advancing angles on the middle of the 
side, and variously tuberculated ; back with tubercles on each side, and a hollow canal 
in the middle ; umbiHcus of middling size, bounded by steep sides ; whorls half con- 
cealed ; aperture oblong ; septa with two lateral lobes, sUghtly subdivided. 

The above are the most constant characters in this very variable species, in which the 
ribs are either very broad or minutely sub-divided, or replaced by tubercles. The best 
marked varieties are those which were described by Mantell and Sowerby as distinct 
species, although specimens may be found with all the characters of both varieties com- 
bined, as fig. 5. A. falcatus originally included the forms without lateral tubercles, as our 
fig. 7, and A. curvatus the more tuberculated forms, like fig. 6, which have two rows of 
tubercles on each side of the back. We are indebted to M. D'Orbigny for uniting them. 
The tubercles usually diminish in number and prominence, as the shell increases in 



22 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

growth ; but fig. 8 is a very remarkable variety, in which the tubercles have almost taken 
the place of the ribs, of which only a few are to be seen in a very young stage. 

Diameter 2 inches ; thickness y^yths of an inch. 

Found sparingly in the Grey Chalk, the Chloritic Marl, and the Chalk with siliceous 
grains, throughout the Southern Counties ; and also in the Green Sand of Blackdow^n. It 
occurs iu beds of the same age in France. 

A.falcatus is related to J. lautus and A. tuherculatus, which have a similar canal down 
the back ; but the peculiarly curved ribs readily distinguish it from those species, while 
its dorsal canal distinguishes it from several species which have ribs with a similar 
double curve. 

H 

4. Ammonites variaxs, Sow. Plate VHI, figs. 5 — 10. 

Ammoxites varian's, Sowerby. Min. Conch., t. 1/6, lower figures only. 

— — Brongniart. Envir. de Paris, t. vi, fig. .5. 

— — Bronn. Lethsea Geogn., t. xxxiii, fig. 2. 

— — UOrbigny. Pale'ont. Franc. Terr. Cret., t. xcii, figs. 3, 4, & .5. 

— — var. INTERMEDIA and var. scb-plana, Mantell. Fossils of the 

South Downs, t. xxi, figs. 2, 5, and 7. 

— Brongniartii, Haan. Amm. et Goniat., No. 43. 

A. testa discoided, radiatd, tuberculatd, carinatd ; radiis numerosis jlexuods, plerum- 
qi/p furcatis, bi-vel tri-tubercidatis ; tuberculis parvis ; dorso carinato, lateribm angulatis, 
tuberctdatis, carina lavi ; timbilico mediocri ; aperturd tnincato-sagittatd. 

Shell discoidal, ornamented on the sides with numerous flexuous, simple, or forked 
ribs, each of which bears a small tubercle at its rise on the edge of the umbilicus, and a 
larger tubercle at its termination on the side of the back, and in some varieties an 
additional tubercle at the point of bifurcation ; umbilicus rather small and well defined ; 
whorls half concealed ; back narrow wdth a prominent keel, and a row of tubercles at each 
side ; section of the whorls considerably higher than broad, sagittate with a truncated 
top ; aperture w'ith the upper part of the whorl projecting forward, and produced into a 
blunt point. Septa with 5 or 6 trifid, subdivided lateral lobes. 

Ammonites varians, as its name imphes, assumes many forms, which may be aiTanged 
under the four following varieties : — 

1st Var. siib-fuberculata, PI. VIII, figs. 5, 6, and 8. The young shell has about 
fifteen slight tubercles round the umbilicus, connected by very faint ribs, with about 
thirty well-marked tubercles at the edge of the back : the adult shell has the ribs more 
prominent and less numerous, about twelve rising from the umbilicus, and increasing to 
about twenty at the edge of the back, an additional distinct tubercle occurs at the 
bifurcation of each rib, and a row of fainter tubercles usually occurs on the branches of the 
divided ribs, half-wav between the fork of the ribs and the back : makinoj four rows of 



AMMONITES. 23 

tubercles on each side of the whorl; the margin of the umbilicus is rounded off; and the 
width of the aperture varies from seven to eight tenths of its height. This is the com- 
monest form of the species. 

2d Var. costata, PI. VIII, fig. 9, of the same form and proportions as the preceding, 
but with mere undulations of the surface in place of ribs ; the tubercles round the edges 
of the umbilicus and of the back small, but distinct ; the other tubercles obsolete. This 
variety is rare. 

3d Var. intermedia of Mantell, PI. VIII, fig. 7 ; a much flatter shell than the 1st and 
2d varieties, the width of the aperture being only half the height of the whorl ; the ribs 
are prominent and more numerous, twenty in number at the umbilicus, increasing to 
thirty at the dorsal margin ; the dorsal tubercles are distinct, the otliers inconspicuous. 
Not very abundant. 

4th Var. mh-plana of Mantell, PI. VIII, fig. 10 ; proportions the same as the last, ribs 
more numerous, but very slight ; dorsal tubercles about fifty, small but distinct ; no 
tubercles on the side of the whorl ; umbilicus small, well-defined, with the side steep, and 
bounded by an angular edge with very faint tubercles. Abundant at Ventnor in the Isle 
of Wight. 

The first three varieties usually reach a diameter of two inches to two inches and a 
half ; the fourth variety rarely attains an inch and a half in diameter. 

Ammonites variann is found abundantly in the Grey Chalk, the Chloritic Marl, the 
Chalk with siliceous grains, and the Upper Green Sand, wherever those Formations occur 
in the southern parts of England. It is common in France in beds of the same age. 

The A. variant of Sowerby included A. Coupei, which is here separated from it, in 
accordance with the views of Brongniart and many other authors. The reasons for this 
separation wiU be found under A. Coupei. 

The variations in form of the shells stiU remaining under A. varians are so con- 
siderable, as almost to justify our regarding the 1st and 2d varieties as one species, the 3d 
and 4th as another; or, if we admitted M. D'Orbigny's opinion, that the broader shells 
were females and the flatter ones males, we might take the first two varieties to be the 
former, and the last two the males : but our present imperfect knowledge of the sexes of 
living Cephalopods does not justify such a division. 



5. Ammonites Coupei, Brong. Plate VIII, figs. 1 — 4. Plate IX, fig. 1. 

Ammonites Coupei, Brongniart. Envir. de Paris, t. vi, fig. 3. 

— — Haan. Amm. et Goniat., No. 42. 

— — Bronn. Lethsea Geogn., t. xxxiii, fig. 4. 

— VARIANS, Sovj. Min. Conch., t. 176, middle and upper figures. 

— — var. TUBERCULATA, Mantell. Foss. S. Downs, p. 116. 

— — Haan. Amm. et Goniat., No. 45. 

— — lyOrhiyny. Paleout. Fran9. Terr. Cret., t. xcii, tigs. 1, J, and 6. 



24 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

A. testa discoidedy aliquando sub-infatd, costatd, tuber culatd, carinatd; costis inter- 
ruptisy Bimplicihus vel furcatis, tri-vel quatuor-tuberculatis ; tuberculis prominentibus ; dorso 
latiuscido, utrinque tuberculato, medio carinato ; wmbilico profunda ; aperturd truncato- 
ovatd. 

Shell discoidal, with the whorls inflated when young, but somewhat flattened when 
adult, ribbed, and tuberculated ; back broad and keeled, with a row of prominent tubercles 
on each side ; aperture ovate, with the upper part of the whorl projecting forward, and 
produced into a blunt point ; umbilicus deep and rounded off" at its upper edge. The ribs 
and tubercles vary much both in size and number at different stages of growth and in 
different varieties of the species. Septa with four trifid, sub-divided lateral lobes. 

This species admits of a division into two strongly-marked varieties, which Haan 
regarded as distinct species : — 

1st Var. iubercidata of Man tell, whorls of the young shell (PI. VHI, fig. 4,) inflated, 
their width being equal to their height, with three rows of very prominent tubercles con- 
nected by thick, ill-defined ribs ; the tubercles of the inner row round the edge of the 
umbilicus are the smallest, ten in number in a very young shell, twelve in a shell of 1^ inch 
in diameter ; the tubercles of the next row, situated on the middle of the whorl, are very 
large and prominent, and equal in number to the preceding ; the tubercles of the outer 
row on the edge of the back are of an intermediate size, and about half as many again as 
the others; in the adult sheU (PL VHI, fig. 2; PI. IX, fig. 1,) the whorls are a little 
flattened, the ribs better marked, the tubercles rather less prominent, and a fourth row of 
small tubercles is inserted between the middle and the dorsal rows; the width of the 
aperture is equal to yV^^s of the height of the whorl. The usual diameter of this variety is 
about 2^ inches, but specimens are occasionally found in the Grey Chalk of 6 inches 
diameter : this enlargement is not due to an increased number of whorls, but to a larger 
size at every stage of growth. 

2d Var. injlata, PI. VIII, fig. 1, whorls inflated, their width being one fourth more 
than their height, with two rows of very large and prominent tubercles ; those of the 
inner row which are seated on the middle of the whorl being the largest, and ten or 
eleven in number ; the outer row on the edge of the back somewhat smaller, and sixteen 
or seventeen in number ; back broad, with a very prominent keel. This variety reached 
2\ inches in diameter, and 1^ of an inch in thickness. 

Ammonites Coupei is common in the Chloritic Marl of the Isle of Wight, and in the 
Chalk with siliceous grains of Dorsetshire ; and is found sparingly in the Grey Chalk of 
the Southern Counties. 

The original description of A. varians in the ' Mineral Conchology' included our 
A. Coupei, which was first separated by Brongniart : most subsequent authors have re- 
garded them as distinct species, until they were reunited by M. D'Orbigny, who con- 
siders that all the varieties of the two species pass into one another, and may in part be 
accounted differences of sex, the more inflated forms being regarded as females. We 



AMMONITES. 2& 

know nothing certain respecting the sexual differences of form in Ammonites ; but even 
if it were admitted that such differences existed, they would not suffice to bring 
A. varians and A. Coupei together, as in each species there are two well-marked differences 
of form, so that there are varieties enough to supply distinct sexes in each species. The 
young shells of both varieties of A. Coupei nearly resemble each other ; the differences 
between them begin in their middle stage, and increase as they grow older, the 1st variety 
gradually approaching A. varians in form, while the 2d variety recedes farther from that 
species. The young A. varians always present a strong contrast, in its flat, faintly-ribbed 
form, to the rounded and tuberculated young shell of A. Coupei .• it is only in the adult 
form of one variety of each species that any confusion can arise between them. 

6. Ammonites cinctus, Mantell. Plate IX, fig. 2. 

Ammonites cixcTUS, Mantell. Fossils of the South Downs, p. 116. 
— — Sowerby. Min. Conch., t. 564, fig. 1. 

A. testa discoided ; ambulacris rotmidatis, transversim costatis ; costis tenuibus, alter- 
natim majoribus furcatis ambulacrum totum amplectentibus, minoribus intermediis dorsalibus ; 
dorso rotundato ; umbilico parvo ; aperturd ovali. 

Shell discoidal, with rounded whorls crossed by numerous shght, irregularly flexuous 
ribs ; these are twelve in number at the umbilicus, divide into two before reaching the 
middle of the side, and are continued over the rounded back; between each of the 
branches of the larger ribs there are one or more short ribs, which only extend across the 
back; umbilicus small; whorls about two thirds concealed; aperture oval. The septa 
have not been seen. 

Diameter, 3-8 inches; width, I'l inch. 

From the Grey Chalk of Middleham, Sussex. The figure is taken from Dr. Mantell's 
original specimen, now in the British Museum. No other specimen of the species is 
known. 

A. cinctus is well characterisd by its very peculiar ribbing, and cannot be confounded 
with any other species. The specimen shows the form of the mouth very nearly complete. 

Hon\ir- 

7. Ammonites Bunburianus, S/iarpe. Plate IX, fig. 3. 

A. testa discoided, compressd, lateribus transversim multi-sulcatd, dorso tri-seriatim 
tuberculatd : umbilico parvo ; ap)erturd ovato-rhomboided. 

Shell discoidal with flattened sides ; crossed by twenty-five unequal furrows, continued 
over the back, which is marked by three rows of tubercles ; the furrows are very small 
near the umbilicus, and gradually grow wider and deeper towards the back where they 
are most important : on the back the spaces between the furrows form broad ribs, each of 
which has three longitudinally flattened tubercles, one on the middle and one on each side 

4 



26 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

of the back ; umbilicus small, with steep sides ; whorls more than half concealed ; aper- 
ture oval ; septa with three slightly indented lateral lobes. 

Diameter, IJ inch; width, fths of an inch. 

Only one specimen has been seen, which was presented by Mr. E. H. Bunbury to the 
Museum of Practical Geology ; it is from the Chalk with sihceous grains of Chardstock, 
Somersetshii'e. The species is named after its discoverer. 

8. Ammonites peramplus, Mantell. Plate X, figs. 1 — 3. 

Ammonites pebamplus, Mantell. Fossils of the South Downs, p. 200. 

— — Sowerby. Min. Conch., t. 357. 

— — D'Orbigny. Paleont. Fran9. Terr. Cret., t. 100, figs. 1, 2. 

— Peosperianus, lyOrbigny. Loc. cit., t. 100, figs. 3 and 4, 

A. testa suhinjlatd : anfractibits rotundatis ; juniorihtis costatis, costis JtexuosiSy 
ampledentihus, quarum sex majoribtis intus tuberculatis ; adolescentibtcs utrinque undato- 
costatis, dorso piano ; adultis rotundatis, intus sub-undatis ; senioribus rotundatis, simplici- 
bus : aperturd imprimis semi-circidari, delude ovatd. 

Shell gibbose, with rounded whorls, of which nearly two thirds are concealed, varying 
in proportions and ornament at different periods of growth ; side of the umbilicus very 
steep ; septa with four or five unequally trifid, branching lateral lobes. 

The young shell, up to a diameter of two inches, has the whorls broader than they are 
high, ornamented by about twenty-five rounded ribs, which bend forward as they cross the 
back ; of these six are stronger than the others, and rise from six large pointed tubercles 
on the edge of the umbilicus, fig. 3, A. prosperianus, D'Orb. At a diameter of four to 
six inches, the intermediate minor ribs disappear, the tubercles become obsolete, and the 
back smooth, and there remain about twelve broad, rounded, straight ribs on each side of 
the whorl, which do not meet on the back, fig. 2. 

When the shells reaches a diameter of a foot, the whorl is higher than broad, and 
nearly smooth, with no trace of its previous ornament, except a series of blunt ill-defined 
tubercles round the umbilicus, connected with faint undulations on the inner half of the 
whorl (fig. 1). 

Very old specimens, which may be found exceeding two feet in diameter, have the 
whorls smooth and entirely devoid of ornament, and the aperture laterally compressed. 

A. peramplus is found in the middle part of the Chalk throughout the counties of 
Kent, Sussex, Surrey, Hertfordshire, and Wiltshire, and the Isle of Wight ; but is most 
abundant in the South Downs. It reaches from the white chalk without flints high up into 
the chalk with flints, but large individuals are only found in the lower parts of its range, 
the uppermost beds in which it occurs only containing very small specimens. M. d'Orbigny 
quotes it only from the Upper Green Sand of the South of France. 

M. d'Orbigny conjectured, p. 335, that his A. prosperianus might, perhaps, prove the 
young of A, peramplus, which farther observation has shown to be the case. 



AMMONITES. 27 

9. Ammonites Woollgari, Mantell. Plate XI, fig. I and 2. 

Ammonites Woollgaki, Mantell. Fossils of the South Downs, t. xxi, fig. 16 ; t. xxii, 

fig. ;. 

— — Sowerby. Min. Con., t. 587, fig. 1. 

— — D'Orbignrj. Prodrome de Paleontologie, p. 189. 

— — (not), D'Orhigny. Pal. Franc., t. 108, fig. 1-3. 

— Carolinus ? UOrbigny. Loc. cit., t. xci, fig. 5, 6. 

A. testa subcompressd, costatd, tuberculatd, interrupte carinatd : Juniore, costis 16-lS 
elevatis, tri-tuberculatis, dorso interruptis, carind dorsali profunde serratd ; adolescenti, 
costis rarioribus ad dorsum uni-tuberculatis, carind dorsali obsoletd ; adultd, costis bi- 
tubercidatis, tubercuUs maximis, dorso concavo : umbilico lato : apertard oblongd. 

Shell compressed, ribbed, tuberculated, and keeled ; changing its form and ornaments 
as it enlarges ; wheu two to three inches in diameter it has sixteen to eighteen sharp, 
elevated ribs on the side of each whorl, each rib bearing three tubercles, one near the 
umbilicus and two near the back; the back has a sharp and deeply serrated keel, the 
serrations corresponding in number to the ribs : when about four inches in diameter, the 
keel is less prominent, the ribs are fewer and nearly obsolete, and bear one enormous 
tubercle at their dorsal end : as the shell continues to enlarge, the whorl grows broader, 
and has two rows of ten very large tubercles on each side, one close to the umbilicus, the 
other at the dorsal edge, the back has entirely lost its keel, and is smooth and hollow 
between the dorsal tubercles : umbilicus large and shallow, with two thirds of the whorls 
exposed : aperture at first oblong and narrow, ultimately nearly of equal height and 
breadth. The septa have not been clearly seen, they appear to have four or five trifid 
lateral lobes. 

Diameter of old shell, 1 foot ; width, 3 inches. 

A rare shell in the Middle and Lower Chalk of Sussex. 

There is hardly any species of Ammonite which undergoes so great a metamorphosis as 
A. Woollgari ; the young and middle stages of growth were well figured by Dr. Mantell ; 
the older stage is not often met with, the only specimen which I have seen is in Mr. 
Baber's collection, but is too imperfect to figiu'e. The shell described as A. Woollgari 
in the ' Paleontologie Francaise,' has no resemblance whatever to Dr. ^lantell's species ; 
this error is pointed out by M. d'Archiac, in the ' Histoire des Progres de la Geologic,' 
vol. iv, p. .347, note, and has been corrected by M. d'Orbigny in the ' Prodrome de 
Paleontologie,' vol. ii, p. 18S. In the latter work M. d'Orbigny quotes his A. Carolinus, 
Pal. Franc., t. 91, fig. 5 and 6, as the young of A. Woollgari ; which identification is very 
doubtful, as the French shell has twice as many ribs, is less compressed, and has the keel 
more completely separated from the ribs by two regular channels, than our species. 



28 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

10. Ammonites Griffithii, Sharpe. Plate XI, fig. 3. 

A. testa discoided IcBvi^ sulcis 4 vel 5 Jlexuosis ornatd : dorso rotundato {impresso ?), 
umbilico parvo : aperturd semiovali : semptorum marginibus ramosisshnis, lobis trifidis. 

Shell discoidal, smooth ; each whorl crossed by four or five slightly waved, transverse 
furrows, bounded on each side by a slight elevation ; back rounded and marked in the 
cast by a small medial groove; umbilicus small and well defined; whorls four fifths 
concealed ; aperture semi-oval ; margins of the septa very complex, with four trifid 
lateral lobes. 

Diameter, 5 inches ; width 2^ inches. 

Found in the hard Chalk of Aughanloe and Benbraddagh, in the County of Derry, by 
the Ordnance Geological Surveyors. 

The specimens examined being all internal casts, the above description is necessarily 
imperfect, and may require modification when better materials are found. The species is 
nearly allied to A. Lewesiensis, Sow., and A. Mayorianus, d'Orb. ; it is distinguished from 
the former by its transverse furrows, from the latter by less breadth at the back, and from 
both by the want of transverse ribs, and a smaller umbilicus : the lobes of the septa of the 
three species are much alike. The shell is named after Richard Griffith, Esq., to whose 
labours we are indebted for the Geological Map of Ireland. 

11. Ammonites Austeni, Sharpe. Plate XII, fig. 1 and 2. 

A. testa discoided, compressd, transversim costatd ; costis Jlexuosis incequalibiis, 
majoribus paucis ambulacrum amplectentibus, minoribus numerosis dorsalibus : dorso 
rotundato : umbilico parvo : aperturd rotundato sagittatd. 

Shell discoidal, transversely ribbed : whorls flattened at the sides, rounded over the 
back, ornamented with numerous unequal flexuous ribs, all passing over the back, of which 
a few, larger than the rest, embrace the whole whorl, the others only reaching to the 
middle of the side ; the number of larger ribs varies, being eight or ten on the whorl of a 
young, and about twenty on that of an old shell : back narrow and rounded : umbilicus 
small, and bounded by steep sides exposing half the inner whorl : aperture bluntly 
sagittate. 

Diameter of the specimen fig. 1, 16 inches; height of outer whorl, 6 inches; width of 
the aperture, 3^ inches : it often reaches much larger dimensions. 

Found in the Grey Chalk of Surrey, Kent, and Sussex, and in the Upper Green Sand 
near Dorking. 

It is singular that a species to be found in abundance near London should never have 
been pubUshed; it has probably been mistaken by collectors for A. jjlatiulatus, Sow., to 
which it has some resemblance ; but that species has transverse furrows where this has 



AMMONITES. 29 

projecting ribs. I have named it after Robert A. C. Austen, Esq., F.R. and G.S., in whose 
neighboiu'hood at Chilworth, this Ammonite is very abundant. 

12. Ammonitis plantjlatus, Sowerhy. Plate XIT, fig. 3 and 4. 

Ammonites planulatus, Sowerby. Mineral Conchology, t. 570, fig. 5. 

A. testa discoided : anfractibus complanatis, externe costatis, interne IcBvihm ; sulcis 5 
trajisversis subflexuosis, impressis ; costis numerosis, brevibus : dorso rotmidato transversim 
costato : umbilico magno ■■ aperturd semi-ovatd : lobis septorum lateralihus incBqualiter 
bifidis. 

Shell discoidal, with four or five whorls flattened on the sides, and rounded on the 
back, crossed by five deep, slightly flexuous furrows, between which are many short slio-ht 
ribs, which cross over the back and only reach the middle of the side of the -whorl : 
umbihcus large and well-defined, leaving thj-ee fifths of the inner whorls visible : aperture 
semi-oval : lateral lobes of the septa unequally bifid. 

Diameter, 2\ inches. 

Rare in the Grey Chalk near Lewes and Bouchurch ; common in the Upper Green 
Sand near Cambridge. 

I have seen but few specimens of this species from the Chalk, and as that originally 
figured by Sowerby is badly preserved and somewhat crushed, and does not show the 
margins of the septa, a figure is added of a well preserved internal cast from the Upper 
Green Sand. M. d'Orbigny unites to Sowerby's species, under the name of A. Mayorianm, 
an Ammonite found in the Lower Green Sand and Gault of France, which difi'ers from 
our species in having only four transverse furrows instead of five, the furrows more 
flexuous, and bounded by stronger swellings, and the cast entirely smooth; it has, 
moreover, the lateral lobes of the septa trifid, which distinguishes it from Sowerby's 
species. I cannot, therefore, regard his species as identical with ours. M. d'Orbigny's 
reason for dropping Sowerby's specific name, that it had been previously used by 
Schlotheim for another species, is also insufficient: since Schlotheim's species being 
abandoned by every one, including M. d'Orbigny himself, 'Terr. Jurass.,' vol. i, p. 509, 
the name remains open for the next species to which it has been apphed, which is the one 
here described. 

13. Ammonites catinus, MantelL Plate XIII. fi^ 1 

Ammonites catinus, MantelL Fossils of the South Downs, t. xxii, fig. 10. (Not t. xxii, 
fig. 5.) 

A. testa infatd : anfractibus paiicis, latis, rotundatis, lateribus 10-12 tuberculatis, dorso 
lavibus : umbilico lato, profundo .- aperturd transversa, semi-circidari. 

■Shell gibbous, with three or four broad whorls, depressed and smooth on the back, 



30 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

elevated and tuberculated on the sides near the large and deep umbilicus; tubercles 
10 to 12 on each whorl, large and ill-defined; inner whorls half concealed: aperture 
transverse, nearly semicircular. 

Diameter, 10 inches; width of aperture, 5 inches. 

Very rare in the Grey Chalk of Wiltshire and Sussex. 

This rare Ammonite, of which only two specimens have been met with, is the only 
species yet known in the Chalk of the Family of the Coronarii, so abundant in the middle 
Oolites. 

A misprint in the explanation of Dr. Mantell's Plate xxii, where fig. 5, is called A. catinus 
instead of A. navicularis, has led to this species being confounded with A. Mantellii, both 
in the ' Paleontologie Fran^aise,' and in Bronn's * Index Paleontologicus.' 

P^cl^v <itscv5 
14. Ammonites Portlocki, Sharpe. Plate XIII, fig. 2 and 3. 

Ammonites fissicostatus, Portlock. Geology of Londonderry, &c., pp. 408 and 764. 

A. testa injlatd, costatd, tuberculatd : ambulacris rotundatis : juniore, tubercnlis latera- 
libus 10, costis 20 transversis, dorso interruptis ; adultd, tuberculis binis, dorsalibiis, 
majoribus ; costis rarioribus : umbilico parvo, prof undo : aperturd transversim ovali : 
sepforum marginibus lateraliter trilobatis, lobis trifidis. 

Shell gibbous, with few rounded whorls wider than high, and a small deep, smooth 
umbiHcus : when one and a half to two inches in diameter the whorl has ten large blunt 
tubercles on the middle of each side, and twenty strong rounded ribs, rising either singly 
or in pairs from the tubercles, and curving slightly forward to near the middle of the back, 
where they become obsolete ; when three inches in diameter only one rib rises at each 
tubercle, which bears a second larger tubercle near the middle of the back, and the 
intervening ribs disappear : in the internal cast the back has a shght medial groove : inner 
whorls nearly half concealed : aperture transversely oval : septa with three trifid lateral 
lobes. 

Diameter, 3 inches ; width of aperture 2 inches. 

Found in the hard Chalk of Tamlaght, in the county of Derry, by the Ordnance 
Geological Surveyors. 

The young shell bears some resemblance to A. Jissicostatus, to which this species was 
first referred, but it is distinguished by more transverse whorls and fewer ribs, and at a 
later stage of growth by the large dorsal tubercles. I have named it after Lieutenant 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., who conducted the Geological branch of the Ordnance Survey of 
Ireland at the time the specimens were found, and first published a notice of them. 



A.MMONITES. 31 

15. Ammonites euomphalus, Sharpe. Plate XIII, fig. 4. 

A. testa inflatd, costatd, tuberculatd : anfractibus latis, dorso depressis, later ibus 
angulatis, spinosis : costis incequalibus ; majoribus alternantibus latero bi-tuberculatis, ad 
dorsum bifidis •• dorso depresso, transversim costato, demum iuberculato : umbilico magna, 
pro/undo : aperturd transversd, angulatd .- septorum marginibus lobis 4 trifidis simpliciusculis . 

Shell gibbous, with a broad flattened back and angular whorls, crossed by numerous 
unequal tuberculated ribs, which bifurcate at the back ; the ribs are about twenty in 
number on the side of the whorl, alternately larger and smaller ; the larger ribs bearing a 
small tubercle near the umbilicus, and a strong spine at the edge of the back ; the number 
of ribs on the back is about double that on the sides of the whorl, two springing from 
each spine, curving forwards and meeting again at the opposite spine ; about every fourth 
dorsal rib is larger than the others, and bears two shght tubercles : umbilicus broad and 
funnel-shaped, leaving three fourths of the inner whorls visible : aperture transverse and 
angular : septa with four very simple, trifid, lateral lobes, and the lateral saddle very small. 

Diameter, three fourths of an inch ; width of aperture, half an inch ; height of the 
last whorl, one third of an inch. 

From the base of the Lower Chalk, at Man of "War Cove, on the coast of Dorsetshire, 
in the collection of E. H. Bunbury, Esq. 

Only one imperfect specimen of this pretty Ammonite has been seen ; in many 
characters it is closely related to A. Martinii, D'Orb., having, like that species, the lateral 
saddle much smaller than the first auxiUary saddle, but it has a flatter back than 
A. Martinii, and somewhat different ribbing. 

16. Ammonites laticlavius, Sharpe. Plate XIV, fig. 1. 

A. testa discoided : anfractibus paucis, planatis, costatis, tuberculatis ; costis 35 radian- 
tibus, '^-tuberculatis, dorso interruptis •• umbilico parvo .- dorso, marginibus bi-tuberculatis, 
medio planiusculo : aperturd rliomboidali. 

Shell with three or four whorls, flattened on the sides ; ornamented on each side with 
thirty-five equal, straight ribs, each bearing four tubercles, not continued across the back ; 
in the young shell the ribs are either single, or unite in pairs at the umbihcar tubercle, 
but after reaching a diameter of three inches, each rib is quite distinct : tubercles in eight, 
nearly equidistant rows, three on the flat side of the whorl, and one on each side of the 
back : umbihcus small and well defined, leaving four fifths of the inner whorls visible : 
back smooth and hollow between the tubercles : aperture rhomboidal. 

Diameter, 6^ inches ; height of last whorl, 3 inches ; width of aperture, 2^ inches. 

A very rare shell in the Grey Chalk of the Isle of Wight. 

This species belongs to the large group of Ammonites with squared whorls and straight 



32 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

tuberculated ribs, of which A. Rhotomagensis is usually taken as the type ; the septa have 
not been well seen. 



17. Ammonites Oldhami, Sharpe. Plate XIV, fig. 2. 

Ammonites alteenatus, Portlock. Geology of Londonderry, &c., pp. 408 and 764. 

A. testa discoided : anfractibus ellipticis, transversim radiatis ; radiis alternatim 
majoribus, dorso interruptis : dorso rotundato, impresso : umbilico magno : aperturd semi- 
ovuli : lobis septorum trijidis ramosissimis. 

Shell discoidal, with slightly flattened, rounded whorls, ornamented with numerous 
transverse ribs, alternately reaching the umbilicus, or stopping on the side of the whorl, but 
all interrupted at the bac^k : umbilicus large and shallow, leaving one third of the inner 
whorls visible : back marked in the internal cast with a slight medial groove : aperture 
semi-elliptical : margins of the septa with three trifid, branching, lateral lobes. 

Diameter, 4 inches; height of last whorl. If inch, width of aperture \\ inch. 

Found in the hard Chalk of Dungiven, in the County of Derry, by the Ordnance 
Geological Surveyors. 

This species is closely allied to A. Lewesiensis, Sow., having the same general form and 
grooved back, and nearly similar septa ; the most obvious distinction is in the ribs, which 
in A. Lewesiensis are equal, and all die out on the side of the whorl without reaching the 
umbilicus. Having only seen one waterworn specimen of A. Oldhami, I offer the 
description of it with some diffidence. It is named after Thomas Oldham, Esq., of the 
Ordnance Geological Survey of Ireland. 

A. alternatus, Woodward, should be expunged from our catalogues, resting on an 
execrably drawn figure of a broken specimen of A. interruptus ; which I learned from 
seeing Woodward^s original drawing, in the possession of Mr. S. P. Woodward of the 
British Museum. 

18. Ammonites leptonema, Sharpe. Plate XIV, fig. 3. 

A. testa discoided, compressiusculd, transversim siibtilissime costatd: costis numero- 
sissimis, simplicibus, jlexuosis, ambulacrum totum amplectentibus : umbilico magno : dorso 
angustato, rotundato : aperturd sagittato-ovatd. 

Shell discoidal, with fom- whorls rounded at the umbilicus, and slightly compressed 
towards the back, enlarging rapidly, and ornamented by very numerous, equal, fine, thread- 
like, flexuous ribs, which embrace the whole whorl ; umbilicus large and shallow ; back 
narrow, and rounded ; aperture ovate. 

Diameter, 1 1 inch, height of last whorl, seven eighths ; width of aperture, five eighths 
of an inch. 

Very rare in the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight. 



A:\rMONITES. 33 

This species resembles A. Velleda, Mich., in its general form and elegant thread-like 
ribs, but is at once distinguished by its larger umbilicus. The specimen figured is the 
only one which has come under my notice. 

-"^ <" ?> n'VW pi ire s 
19. Ammonites Rhotomagensis, Befrance. Plate XVI, fig. 1 — 4. 

Ammonites Rhotomagensis, Brongniart. Environs de Paris, t. vi, fig. 2. 

— — Soiverbij. Min. Conch., t. 51.5. 

— ■ — Bronn. Lethaea Geogn., t. xxxiii, fig. 1-3. 

— — jyOrhigny. Pal. Fran9., t. 105 and 106. 

— SussEXiENSis, Mantell. Geol. Sussex, t. xxi, fig. 10. (Not t. xx, fig. 2.) 

A. testa discoided, costatd, tuberculatd : anfractibus tumidis, quadrato-rotundatis •• costis 
rectis, simplicibus, rotundatis, agualibus ; jimioribus septem, adultis sex-tuberculatis : dorso 
juniore rotundato, tuberculis triserialibus ; adulto bituberculato, tratiwersim costato, vel 
medio piano : umbilico magno : septorum lobis later alibus incequaliter hifidis ? 

Variat anfractibus j)Ianiusculis, tubercidatis ; costis subobsoletis ; dorso piano. 

Shell discoidal ; AA^horls tumid, flattened at the back and sides, with nearly a square 
section ; about one third concealed ; crossed by about twenty-four simple, straight, rounded 
ribs, which when young bear seven tubercles, and when full grown six tubercles each ; the 
tubercles are thus placed, — one row near the umbilicus, and two rows on each side of the 
back, the seventh row on the middle of the back disappears in adult shells, leaving the 
back either smooth and flat, or crossed by a continuation of the ribs • umbilicus larcre and 
ill-defined, with sloping sides. The lateral lobes of the septa are unequally bifid? 

Diameter, 8 inches ; width, 3^ inches ; height of aperture, 3 inches. 

Very abundant in the Grey Chalk of all the southern counties, and in the Chloritic 
Marl of the Isle of Wight, and Chalk with silicious grains of the West of England. 

The A. Rhotomagensis, as above defined, presents very constant characters ; from its 
youngest stage, fig. 3, till it has attained about two thirds of its full size, the only change 
is a gradual increase in the number of the ribs, but the form and number of the tubercles 
continues the same; this distinguishes it from A. Sussexiensis and A. Cunniiigtoni, 
in both of which the dorsal are, in young shells, more numerous than the lateral tubercles. 
In the adult A. Rhotomagensis the tubercles on the middle of the back disappear ; in 
some specimens the ribs are continued prominently across the back, in others the back is 
flat and nearly smooth. The size at which the change takes place varies very much. 
Specimens are often found which, though less than three inches in diameter, have all the 
characters of the adult shell, one of these is represented of the natural size in fig. 2 ; but 
more frequently they reach nearly six inches in diameter before losing the dorsal tubercles, 
as in the case of fig. 1. The superior lateral lobe of the septa is always bifid, with more 
or less unequal terminal branches ; the termination of the next lateral lobe varies, some 



34 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

specimens having it distinctly trifid, as it is figured in the 'Pal. Fran?.,' fig. 106, while 
others have it unequally bifid. 

A marked variety is found in the Chalk with siliceous grains of Somersetshire and 
Dorsetshire, in which the ribs are nearly obsolete ; but the general form of the shell, the 
tubercles, and the outline of the septa identify the species. 

M. d'Orbigny unites A. hippocastanum, Sow., to A. Rhotoma<j/ensis, in which I cannot 
coincide ; the unequal ribs of the former contrasting too strongly with the extreme regularity 
of the latter to admit of their belonging to one species. 

20. Ammonites Sussexiensis, MantelL Plate XV, fig. \. 

Ammonites Sussexiensis, MantelL Geol. Sussex, t. xx, fig. 2. (Not t. xxi, fig. 10.) 

A. testa discoided, costatd, tuberculatd : anfractihus tumidis, quadrato-rotundatis •■ costis 
rectis, later aliter simplicibus, bituberculatis ; junioribus, dor so bi- vel tri-divisis, tri-tuber- 
culatis ; adultis, dor so continuis simplicibus : umbilico magno -. septorum lobis lateralibus, 
primo bijido, secundo trlfido. 

Shell discoidal ; whorls tumid, flattened at the back and sides, with nearly a square 
section, very little concealed ; ornamented with sixteen or eighteen tuberculated ribs ; on 
the sides of the whorls the ribs are all equal, straight, rounded, and bearing two large 
tubercles, one near the umbilicus, the other near the back ; but the dorsal portion of the 
ribs varies with the age of the shell ; at three inches diameter (the youngest examined) 
each rib divides on the back into two or three ribs, which reunite at the opposite tubercles 
and bear three small tubercles each ; a little later it is only the middle tubercle which is 
divided into two ; after this the rib is continued across the back as in one form of A. 
Mhotomagensis : umbilicus very large, concealing hardly one fifth of the inner whorls. 
The superior lateral lobe of the septa is bifid, the inferior lateral lobe trifid. 

Diameter, 6 inches ; width, 2 inches ; height of aperture, 2 j inches. 

Found occasionally in the Grey Chalk near Lewes, Sussex. 

The two shells originally figui-ed in the Geology of Sussex by Dr. Mantell, under the 
name of A. Sussexiensis, belonged to two difierent species, to one of which the name of 
A. Rhotomagensis had just before been given in France ; the other being the species above 
described as A. Sussexieiisis. The distinctions between them having been overlooked, they 
were united together by Sowerby in the ' Mineral Con chology,' vol. vi, p. 25, and all 
subsequent authors having adopted the same view, A. Sussexiensis has been viewed as a 
synonym of A. Rhotomagensis : the adult shells, though a good deal alike, may be 
distinguished by the number of their ribs, but in their younger stage the differences in the 
dorsal ribs and tubercles are too great to allow of any confusion between them. 



AMMONITES. 35 

21. Ammonites Cunningtoni, Sharpe. Plate XV, fig. 2. 

A. testa injlatd, tuberculato-spinosd : anfractibus tumidis rotmidatis ; lateraliter 
biseriatim spinosis ; dorso planulatis, tuberculatis : tuberculis dorsalibus imprimis tri- 
serialibuSy medio numerosioribus, dei/ide obsoletis ■■ umbilico magno -. aperturd transversim 
ovali : septoru)/i lobis lateralibus, superiore bifidd, inferiore trifidd. 

Shell with few broad rounded whorls, each with two lateral rows of about ten spinose 
tubercles, one row of moderate size near the umbilicus, the other of large spines at the edge 
of the back : three rows of smaller elongated tubercles on the back ; those of the two 
outer rows corresponding in number to the lateral spines ; in the central row two or three 
smaller tubercles to each of the others : as the shell increases in size the tubercles of the 
middle row gradually disappear, and the other dorsal tubercles coalesce with the spines, 
leaving the back smooth, and only four rows of large spines on the whorl : umbilicus 
large, leaving nine tenths of the inner whorls visible : aperture transversely oval : superior 
lateral lobe of the septa bifid, inferior lateral lobe trifid. 

Diameter, 6 inches ; width, 3 5: inches ; height of aperture, 2^ inches. 

The only specimen seen was found in the Grey Chalk of Upton Scudamore, near 
Warminster. 

This species is nearly related to A. Sussexie?isis, from which it is distinguished by its 
broader whorls, fewer and larger lateral tubercles, and diS'ereut arrangement of the dorsal 
tubercles. The species is named after William Cunnington, Esq., F.G.S., of Devizes, 
whose zeal in illustrating the Geology of his neighbourhood entitle him to our gratitude. 



AMMONITES. 37 

22. Ammonites Cenomanensis, D'Archiac. Plate XVII, fig. I. 

Ammonites Cenomaneksis, TfArchiac. Mem. de la Soc. Ge'ol. de France, 2me serie, 

vol. ii, pp. 62 and 78 ; Histoire des Prog, de la Geol., 
vol. iv, p. 347, note. 

— — IfOrhigny. Prodrome, vol. ii, p. 146. 

— WooLLGAEi, Id. Pal. Fran?. Terr. Cre't., vol. i, t. 108, figs. 1—3. 

— ViELBAXCii ? Id. Prodrome, vol. ii, p. 189. 

A. testa inflatd, transversim costato-tuberculatd ; anfractibus quadratis ; costis nume- 
rosis, rectis, oetate juniori ad dorsum quinque-tuberculatis, adultd simplicibus, continuis, 
hitubercidatis ; dorso latissimo, utroque latere tuberculato. 

Shell inflated ; whorls nearly square, crossed by about sixteen thick, straight, equal 
ribs ; each rib starts from a large tubercle on the margin of the umbilicus, and bears 
another larger tubercle at the side of the back ; the very young shell has not been seen • 
but at 4 inches diameter there are three tubercles on the dorsal part of each rib, between 
the two larger ones already mentioned; at the diameter of S or 9 inches these three 
tubercles are lost in a strong straight rib crossing the back, and forming right angles at 
its continuation with the lateral ribs ; in the still older shell, of a foot in diameter, the 
ribs are less prominent, but the two tubercles at the sides of the back project 1| inch. 

Largest diameter, 1 foot ; width, 5 inches ; height of aperture, 4 inches. 

Common in the Grey Chalk of Kent, Surrey, and Sussex. 

This Ammonite is so closely related to A. Rhotoma^ensis, that it may perhaps be only 
a variety of that species. The principal differences are in the ribs of the old shells, which 
in A. BJiotomac/ensis become less and less distinct, till they finally disappear ; in A. Ceno- 
manensis grow very prominent and square, and finally run into large projecting horns. 
It appears to have been distinguished by M. D'Archiac and M. D'Orbiguy indepen- 
dently. The latter author first confounded it with A. Woollgari, of Mantell, with which 
it has little in common ; but M. D'Archiac gave it the name which it must retain. 

23. Ammonites hippocastanum, Sowerby. Plate XVII, figs. 2, 3, and 4. 

Ammomtes hippocastanum, Sowerby. Mineral Concliology, t. 114, fig. 2. 

A. testa injlatd, costatd, spinoso-tuberculatd ; anfractibus paucis, celeriier cresce?itibus, 
angulatis ; costis 12 — 20 valde incequalibus, tuber culatis ; tuberculis 7 seriatis, inaqualibus ; 
lateralibus interdum spinosis •• dorso lato, 5 tuberculato : umbilico parvo, prof undo : aper- 
turd transversim rhomboided. 

Shell gibbose, with few broad and angular whorls, which increase rapidly in size, 
ornamented with transverse, unequal ribs, and seven rows of large unequal tubercles : 

7 



38 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

when young, the ribs are about twelve in number, nearly equal, each bearing seven 
tubercles ; one large, close to the umbilicus ; another, very large and conical, near the 
side of the back ; and three on the back, which are smaller and compressed laterally : in 
the middle stage there is occasionally one small rib, bearing three or five tubercles, 
between the larger ones ; and in the adult shell there are usually two such smaller tuber- 
culated ribs between the principal ones, making about twenty ribs on the whorl, and the 
tubercles are very unequal in size : back very broad : umbilicus small and deep, exposing 
half the inner whorls : aperture transversely rhomboidal : septa with a very broad dorsal 
saddle, and two lateral lobes, of which the superior is bifid ; the other has not been well 
seen. 

Diameter, 2^ inches ; height of last whorl, 1 j inch ; width of aperture, 1^ inch. 

Tolerably common in the Chalk with silicious grains of Lyme Regis, Dorsetshire ; 
and Chardstock, Somersetshire. 

Many of the Continental authors have united this species with A. Rhotomagensis, 
probably without having seen the shell, which appears to be confined to one bed in the 
West of England. When very young the two shells are nearly alike ; but A. Uppocastanum 
may be known by its greater breadth of whorl, and large lateral spines. As it increases 
in size, it is distinguished by the rapid enlargement of its whorls, great breadth, and great 
inequality of its ribs and tubercles ; while A. Ithotomageims is, at all its stages, known by 
their uniformity. A. Cunningtoni has more affinity to A. Jdppocastanuni ; but not having 
seen the young state of that shell, I am unable to compare them thoroughly. 

24. Ammonites Goupilianus, JD'Orhigny. Plate XVH, figs. 5, 6. 

Ammonites Goupiliantjs, IfOrhigny. Paleont. Fran9. Terr. Cr6t., t. xciv, figs. 1 — 3. 

A. testa discoided, compressd, carinatd, transversim undato-costatd ; costis depressis, 
numerosis intsqualibus bicurvatis : dorso obtuso, carinato, producto : anfractibus tribiis, ad 
mnbilicum declivibus, sub-carinatis, deinde siib-sulcatis, compressis : wnbilico mediocri .- 
aperturd elongato-ovatd : septorum lobis lateralibiis 6, trifidis. 

Shell discoidal, flattened on the sides, keeled ; ornamented with numerous unequal, 
flexuous ribs, which, rising from the raised edge of the umbilicus, incline forward for two 
fifths of the width of the whorl, then bend slightly backwards, and again bend forward 
near the back, and are produced forward at the keel, marking the outline of the mouth of 
the shell at its successive stages of growth ; a few of the ribs are stouter than the rest : 
umbilicus of moderate size, exposing about one fourth of the inner whorls, and bounded 
by nearly perpendicular w^alls : sides of the whorls depressed into a slight channel near the 
umbilicus : back obtuse, with a sharp keel, and projecting in a point over the oval mouth : 
septa with six trifid lateral lobes. In the youngest stage of growth seen, the larger ribs 



AMMONITES. 39 

rise into a tubercle near the umbilicus, and also on each side of the back : the old shell is 
nearly smooth, with faintly marked obsolete ribs. 

Diameter, 3 inches; height of the last whorl, Ij inch; width of aperture, 1 inch. 

From the Grey Chalk of Hamsey, near Lewes. The only specimen seen is in the 
British Museum, from the collection of Dr. Mantell. In France it has been found in the 
Grey Chalk near Saumur, and in the Upper Green Sand of Mondragon, near Orange. 
{B' Orhipiy, loc. cit., p. 319.) 

With some general resemblance to the variety sub-plana of A. varians, this species is 
distinguished from that and all the other known species of the Chalk by the depression of 
the sides of the whorl near the umbilicus, and the peculiar sigmoidal flexure of the ribs, 
in which characters it is related to A. serpentinus, Schloth., and several other species of 
the Lias and Lower Oolite. 

25. Ammonites Yelled^, Michelin. Plate XYII, fig. 7 ; and Plate XIX, fig. 6. 

Ammonites Yelled j;, Michelin. Magasin de Zoologie, t. xxxv. 

— — D'Orbigny. Paleont. Franc. Terr. Cret., vol. i, t. Ixxxii. 

— — Pictet and Roux. Foss. des GresVert des env. de Geneve, t. ii, fig. 1. 

A. testa discoided, compressd, transversim subtilissime costatd : anfradibus paucis 
lateribics complanatis, dorso rotundatis : costis tenuibus, rectiusculis, numerosissimis, anfrac- 
tum totum amplectentibus : umbilico minimo : aperturd ehngato-ovatd, septorum lobis late- 
ralibus trijldis. 

Shell discoidal compressed, with few whorls, flattened on the sides, and rounded at 
the back ; crossed by numerous fine, equal, thread-like ribs, which embrace the whole 
whorl : umbilicus very small :* aperture elliptical : lateral lobes of the septa trifid. 

Diameter, If inch; height of the last whorl, I inch; w^idth of aperture, \ inch. 

Found rarely in the Upper Chalk near Norwich, and in the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, 
Isle of Wight. In France and Savoy it is found in beds of the age of the Gault, attaining 
a diameter of 7 inches. 

26. Ammonites navicularis, Mantell. Plate XVIII, figs. 1 — 3, 5, 8. 

Ammonites naviculaeis, Mantell. Fossils of the South Downs, t. xxii, fig. 5. 

— — Sowerby. Min. Conch., 555, fig. 2. 

— — D^Orbigny. Prodrome, vol. ii, p. 146. 

— Gentoni, Brongniart. Env. de Paris, t. vi, fig. 6. 

— Mantelli, TSOrUgny. Paleont. Frang. Terr. Cret., t. 103. 

— Milletianus, Dixon. Geol. of Sussex, t. xxix, fig. 15. 



* Owing to the specimen, pi. xvii, fig. 7, consisting of very soft Chalk, the umbilicus has been too 
much excavated, and is represented too large. ^ 



40 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

A. testa inflatd, costatd, interdum tuberculatd : anfractihus rotundatis : costis rectis, 
sim])licibus, incequalibus, ad dorsum continuis ; junioribus tuberculatis ; adultis avgulatis, 
vet rotundatis : dorso rotundato, transversim costato , juniore trituberculato : umbilico parvo, 
prof undo : aperturd semi-eUipticd : septorum lobis lateralibus, primo incequaliter bifida , 
cceteris trifidis : variat angulis, tuberculisque costalibus jjIus, minusve conspicuis. 

Shell inflated, with few rounded or angular whorls, crossed by numerous strong, 
unequal ribs : back round, or angular at the sides : umbilicus small and deep, with 
half the inner whorls visible : ribs alternately longer and shorter ; the longer ribs 
commence from a tubercle at the edge of the umbilicus, and sometimes bear a second 
tubercle on each side of the whorl ; the shorter ribs rise on the side of the whorl, nearer 
to the umbilicus than to the back ; all the ribs cross the back : in young shells there are 
three tubercles on the dorsal part of each rib, which give a slight angularity to the back 
and to the mouth ; in older shells the rib is strong and prominent over the back, without 
any tubercles, and the back and the mouth are rounded : the superior lateral lobe of the 
septa is unequally bifid, the two others are trifid ; only two lateral lobes are visible on the 
side of the whorl, the second auxiliary lateral lobe being on the slope of the umbilicus. 

Diameter, 4^ inches ; height of last whorl, 2 inches ; width of aperture, 2 inches. 

Common in the Lower Chalk of the South of England. 

This species was first described by Dr. Mantell from a very imperfect specimen, but 
w-as afterwards admirably figured in the ' Mineral Conchology ■/ nevertheless it was united 
to A. Manielli by D'Orbigny, Broun, and other Continental writers. They are, however, 
to be distinguished when young by the row of tubercles on the middle of the back of 
A. navicularis, and when old by the ribs of that species continuing elevated over the 
middle of the back j while in A. Mantelli there is a depression on the middle of the back 
at all periods of its growth. A. Mantelli is usually flatter, more angular, and more 
tuberculated than A. navicularis, but there are varieties which differ in these respects. 
The species are both found in the Lower Chalk; but I have seen no specimens of A. navi- 
cularis from the Upper Green Sand. In the ' Prodrome de Paleontologie,' M. D'Orbigny 
has again separated the two species. 

A. Gentoni of Defrance and Brongniart, is the young of A. navicularis, in the con- 
dition of my figure 5 c. 

A. Milletianus of Dixon (not of D'Orbigny), is one of the many forms of this species, 
nearly the same as my figure 5. 

27. Ammonites Mantelli, Sowerbi/. Plate XVIII, figs. 4 — 7. 

Ammonites Mantelli, Sotcerby. Min. Conch., t. Iv. 

— — Mantell. Fossils of the South Downs, t. xxi, fig. 9 ; t, xxii, fig. 1 . 

— — D'Orbigny. Paleont. Fran9. Terr. Cret., t. 104, figs. 1 and 2. (Not 
^ t. 103.) 

— — Id, Prodrome, vol. ii, p. 146. 



AMMONITES. 41 

A. testa discoided, costatd, tuberculatd : anfractihim angulatis : costis simplicibus, recti- 
usculis, incequalihus ; ad dorsum suhcontinuis vel ohsoletis, hituherculatis ; ad laterd 1, 2, 
vel 3 tuberculatis : dorso angulato, medio depresso : umhiUco parviusculo : aperturd r/iom- 
boided : septorum lobis later alihus,primo incsqualiter bifida, cateris trijidis. 

Var. A. Anfractibus tumidis : aperturd octangulari ; costis rectis, majoribus 8 tubercu- 
latis, minoribus 6 tuberculatis; tub er cutis spinosis. 

Var. B. Anfractibus compressis : aperturd angulato-ovali : costis subjlexuosis : tuberculis 
dorsalibus conspicuis, ccBteris obsoletis. 

Shell discoidal, with twenty to twenty-five tuberculated ribs, alternately long and 
short : whorls angular, depressed or tumid : ribs simple and usually straight, the longer 
ones commencing at a tubercle at the edge of the umbilicus, the shorter below the middle 
of the whorl, and all continuing across the back, with a depression in the middle of the 
back : tubercles varying from four to eight rows, of which the umbilical and dorsal rows 
are always present, the lateral rows being either well or faintly marked, or altogether 
absent : back depressed in the middle, with a row of tubercles on each side : umbilicus 
small and deep, allowing half the inner whorls to be seen : aperture rhomboidal : septa 
with three lateral lobes, the first unequally bifid, the others trifid. 

Var. A. Whorls tumid : aperture octangular : ribs straight, with eight rows of large 
tubercles. 

Far. B. Whorls flattened : aperture nearly oval : ribs slightly flexuous : dorsal tubercles 
distinct, the others nearly obsolete. 

Diameter, 3 inches; height of last whorl, 1| to 1^ inch; width of aperture, 1^ to 1| 
inch, according to the variety. 

Found in the Lower Chalk and the Upper Green Sand of the South of England, and 
in beds of the same age throughout France. 

The distinction between this species and A. navicularis will be found after the descrip- 
tion of that species. 

28. Ammonites Renauxianus, B'Orbigny. Plate XIX, fig. 2. 

Ammonites Renauxianus, IfOrhigny. Paleont. Fran?. Terr. Cret., t. xxvii. 

A. testa discoided, compressd, tuberculato-costatd : costis bi- vel tri-fidis, jlexuosis, bi- 
tuberculatis, ad dorsum sub-interruptis : dorso bituberculato ; juniore transversim sub-costato ; 
adulto sub-carinato : umbilico mediocri : aperturd truncatO'eUipticd. 

Shell discoidal, compressed, with few whorls, ribbed and tuberculated : ribs, about 
fifteen, bifid or trifid, each springing from a large tubercle near the edge of the umbilicus, 
and dividing into two or three flexuous branches, each of which bears another tubercle at 
the edge of the back : in young shells the ribs are faintly continued across the back ; but 



42 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

in older specimens they end at the side of the back, and there is a sHghtly elevated ridge 
along the middle of the back, with a row of tubercles on each side ; these dorsal tubercles 
are elongated transversely in the direction of the ribs : umbilicus shallow, leaving nearly 
half of the inner whorls visible : aperture nearly elliptical. 

Diameter of the figured specimen from the Grey Chalk, ly^^-^^c^^J height of the last 
whorl, Y^^ inch ; width of aperture, yV inch. 

Rare in the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight. It is also found in the Upper 
Green Sand, near Dorking, where it attains a diameter of 4 inches. In France it has 
been found in the lower part of the "Craie Chloritee." 

Not having seen the young stage of any specimens of A. Renanxianus found in the 
Upper Green Sand, it is with some hesitation that I unite to that species these small 
shells found in the Lower Chalk. On a side view, they closely resemble A. varians, from 
which they differ in the form of the back, which never rises into a decided keel as in that 
species. The dorsal tubercles are also different, as they slope with the rib ; while in A. 
varians they are compressed transversely to the rib, and parallel to the keel. 



29. Ammonites octo-sulcatus, Sharjje. Plate XIX, fig. 3. 

A, testa discoided : anfractibus cowplanatis ; dorso rotundatis, siibtrilissime costatis> 
sulcis 8 transversis, redmsculis, mpressis ; costis numerosis, hrevibus, dorsum a7nplectentibus •• 
umbilico mediocri : aperturd semi-ovatd. 

Shell discoidal ; with few whorls, flattened on the sides, and rounded on the back, 
crossed by eight deep, very slightly flexuous furrows, between which are many short, 
delicate ribs bending forward, and well defined on the back, fading away in the middle of 
the sides of the whorl : umbilicus rather small, leaving a fourth of the inner whorls visible : 
aperture semi-oval. 

Diameter, 1 inch ; width of aperture, f inch ; height of last whorl, -f^ inch. 

Found in the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, in the Isle of Wight, and in the Chalk with 
silicious grains, of Chardstock. 

This species is nearly allied to A. plamdatus and A. Mayorianus, 'of the Lower Chalk, 
and to A. Guettardi of the Neocomian of the South of France. It differs from the first 
two in having the constrictions more numerous, and the inner w^horls more concealed ; 
and from the last, in having the furrows straighter, and projecting more forward, a rather 
larger umbilicus, and flatter sides to the whorl. Unfortunately the septa have not been 
seen. A. Belus, D'Orbigny, has a similar form and ornaments, but the furrows incline 
backwards on crossing the back ; while in all the other species just mentioned, they project 
forwards at the middle of the back. 



AMMONITES. 43 



30. Ammonites Icenicl's, Shar;pe. Plate XIX, fig. 4. 

A. testa discoided, coinpressd, lavi, inornatd : anfradibus paucis : umhilico mediocri : 
dorso rotundato : aperturd ovatd : septoriim lobis later alibus, primo trijido, Sateris ince- 
qualiter bifdis. 

Shell discoidal, smooth ; with few whorls, flattened on the sides, and rounded on the 
back : umbilicus of middling size, allowing two fifths of the inner whorls to be seen ; 
apertm'e ovate : septa with four lateral lobes, the first trifid, the others unequally bifid. 

Diameter, 2 inches ; height of last whorl, 1 inch ; width of aperture, J inch. 

Rare in the Upper Chalk near Norwich. 

The Ammonite here described has few characters by which it can be distinguished, and 
may perhaps prove to be only a young shell. But the Upper Chalk contains so few 
Ammonites, that it is desirable to place on record all that are known. It belongs to the 
same group as A. Lewesiensis. 



31. Ammonites Deverianus, lyOrbigny. Plate XIX, fig. 5. 

Ammonites Deverianus, TfOrhigny. Paleont. Franc. Terr. Cret., t. Ill, figs. I and 2. 

A. testa inflatd, transversim tuberculato-costatd : anfradibus paucis, lateribus corn- 
pressis, dorso rotundatis ; costis inoequalibus, simplidbus vel bifurcatis, 9 tuberculatis ■■ aper- 
turd quadrato-rotundatd : umbilico magno. 

Shell discoidal ; with few whorls, flattened on the sides, and rounded at the back, 
crossed by numerous tuberculated ribs, which are continued over the back ■. about half the 
ribs commence at a tubercle on the edge of the umbilicus, and are either simple or bifur- 
cating ; between these there is often a shorter rib, commencing on the middle of the side 
of the whorl; all are equal on the back: tubercles large and round, in nine rows ; viz., 
three on each side, and three on the back ; the dorsal rows containing about twice as many 
as the umbilical row : umbilicus very large, leaving nearly two thu'ds of the inner whorls 
visible : aperture nearly square, with the corners rounded off. 

Diameter, 4 inches ; height of last whorl. If inch; width of aperture. If inch. 

From the Grey Chalk of Sussex. The only specimen seen is in the British Museum, 
from the collection of F. Dixon, Esq. It has been found in France in the " Craie Chlo- 
ritee" of Uchaux. 

This species is readily distinguished from all others by the number and position of the 
tubercles. 



44 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

32. Ammonites rusticus, Sowerhy. Plate XX, fig. 1. 

Ammonites rusticus, Sowerhy. Min. Couch-, t. 177. 
« — — jyOrhiyny. Paleont. Fran9. Terr. Cret., t. Ill, figs. 1 and 2. 

A. testa discoided, tuberculafd : anfradibus panels, rotundatis ■■ tuberculis 4 seriatis ; 
1 lateralibus distaniibus, maximis, conicis ; 2 dorsalibus minoribus, depressis, numerosis : 
umbilico maximo : dorso rotundato, medio piano. 

Shell discoidal, tuberculated, with few rounded whorls : umbilicus very large, rounded 
at the sides, exposing three fourths of the inner whorls : tubercles in four rows, viz., one on 
each side of the whorl, a little above the middle, of ten or twelve very large, conical 
tubercles ; and two on the back, of about twenty-four smaller, rounded, depressed tuber- 
cles : aperture nearly round. 

Diameter, C inches ; height of last whorl, 'i\ inches ; width of aperture, 2 inches. 

A very rare shell, found in the Lower Chalk near Lyme Regis, Dorsetshire. 

33. Ammonites Renevieri, Sharpe. Plate XX, fig. 2. 

A. testa dlscoided, coiiqjressd : wnbilico parvo : aperiurd tnincato-hastatd : septorum 
lobis later alibus tribus trlfidis : estate junior e, undato-costatd, tuber culatd ; tuberculis 4 
seriatis, ad umbilicum panels, majoribus, dorsum versus elongatls, numerosis ; dorso subcarl- 
nato ; adultd omnino Icsvi, dorso rotundato. 

Shell discoidal, with few flat whorls : umbiHcus small, leaving half the inner whorls 
visible : mouth trimcato-hastate : septa with three trifid lateral lobes : at the diameter of 
four inches, as in the specimen figured, the whorls have their sides ornamented with about 
ten ribs, each springing from a round tubercle at the edge of the umbilicus, reaching across 
half the width of the whorl, and then changing to a flattened undulation, which ends at 
the side of the back in a tubercle, elongated in the direction of the whorl ; alternating with 
these ribs are similar flattened undulations, ending in similar tubercles : back faintly 
keeled in the middle : in older specimens the sides are quite smooth, and the back 
rounded. 

Diameter, 6^ inches ; height of last whorl, 8^ inches , width of aperture, 2 inches. 

Found in the Grey Chalk near Bonchurch, Isle of Wight, and near Devizes. 

This species has probably been overlooked from its resemblance to some of the forms 
of A. varians, from which it is to be distinguished by straighter and more simple ribbing, 
and by the septa, which have the dorsal saddle divided into three parts, in a manner which 
rarely occurs in this genus. I have named the species after M. E. Renevier, whose labours 
among the Cretaceous Rocks of Switzerland deserve our warmest thanks, and who has 
lately visited this country with the view of helping to bring into harmony the synonymy 
of the Cretaceous Fossils of England and the Continent. 



AMMONITES. 45 

34. Ammonites Saxbii, Sharpe. Plate XX, fig. 3. 

A. testa discoided, compressd^ tuberculato-costatd : anfractibus panels, complanatis, an- 
gulatis' dorso piano, hi-tuhereulato -, costis reetis 8 — 10 majoribus tri-tubereulatis, 20 mi- 
noribus bi-tuberculatis • aperturd rhomboided •' septorum lobis later alibus bijidis. 

Shell discoidal, compressed ; whorls few, flattened on the sides : back flat, with angular 
edges, and a row of tubercles on each side : ribs about thirty, straight, of which eight or 
ten rise from a tubercle on the edge of the umbilicus, and the others begin on the middle 
of the side of the whorl ; all ending in a large tubercle at the side of the back, and also 
bearing a smaller tubercle before reaching the back ; there being either two or three of the 
smaller ribs between every two longer ones : apertm'e rhomboidal : umbilicus small, 
bounded by steep sides, aod allowing two thirds of the inner whorls to be seen : lateral 
lobes of the septa bifid. 

Diameter, 1 inch; height of the last whorl, ^ inch; width of the aperture, f inch. 

Rare in the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight. 

A pretty little shell, readily distinguished from all the varieties of A. varians by its 
straight ribs and want of keel. It is named after S. Saxby, jun., Esq., who has rendered 
me much assistance in collecting together the fossil species of the Chalk of the Isle of 
Wight. 



35. Ammonites Vectensis, Sharpe. Plate XX, fig. 4. 

A. testa discoided: anfractibus, lateribus compressis, dorso rotimdatis, transversini 
costatis: costis incequalibus, jlexuosis, supra dorsum continuis: wnbilico mediocri ; aperturd 
ovali. 

Shell discoidal, with few whorls, which are flattened on the sides, rounded at the back, 
and crossed by about twenty flexuous, slightly elevated ribs ; the ribs commence at the 
edge of the umbilicus, and slope forward to the middle of the side of the whorl, where 
they bend backwards a little way, and then again slope forwards over the back ; besides 
these there are about ten shorter ribs occasionally inserted between the former, which only 
begin on the middle of the side, and equally cross over the back : umbilicus of moderate 
size, leaving more than half the inner whorls exposed : aperture oval : septa not seen. 

Diameter, 2^ inch ; height of last whorl, 1 inch ; width of aperture, f inch. 

Only one imperfect specimen has been seen, which was found in the Chloritic Marl, 
near Ventnor, Isle of Wight. 

This species is related to A. consobrinus, D'Orbigny, and A. cinctus, Sowerby, but is not 
in danger of being confounded with either. It is also related to A. undatus, Sowerby ; but 

8 



46 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

I find it impossible to compare them properly, for the original specimen of A. undatus 
which Mr. J. de C. Sowerby has had the kindness to lend me, is so much crushed, that its 
real characters cannot be distinguished; and that name had better be omitted from our 
lists. 

36. Ammonites Lewesiensis, Mantell. Plate XXI, fig. 1. 

Ammonites Lewesiensis, Mantell. Fossils of the South Downs, t. 22, fig. 2. 

— — D'Orbigny. Paleont. Fran9. Ters. Cret., t. 102, figs. 1, 2? note 

t. 101. 

A. tesid subinjlatd : anfractihus rotundatis, lateraliter sub-compressis, undato-costatis ; 
dorso Icevi rotundato ■■ umbilico parvo : aperturd ovatd : septorium lobis lateralibus 4 
inequaliter trijidis. 

Shell inflated : whorls few, with their sides a little flattened, and crossed by about 
twelve broad, radiating undulations, or indistinct ribs, which commence at the edge of the 
umbilicus, and die out before reaching the rounded, plain back : umbilicus rather small, 
with steep sides, allowing above one third of the inner whorls to be seen : aperture oval ; 
septa with four unequally trifid lateral lobes, and a very narrow dorsal lobe. 

The young shell difiers little from the adult ; it has the same plain, round back, but 
the undulations are hardly visible till it has reached a diameter of 4 to 6 inches : in very 
old shells, of 2 feet in diameter, the outer whorl becomes quite smooth. 

This is one of the largest species of Ammonite found in the Chalk, sometimes 
exceeding two feet in diameter : the dimensions of the specimen figured are — diameter, 
16 inches; height of the last whorl, 6 inches ; width of the opening, 5 inches. 

Rather rare in the Grey Chalk near Lewes and Dover. 

Three species have been published under the name of A. Leioesiensis by Mantell, 
Sowerby, and D'Orbigny. The description and figure given by the first are so imperfect 
as to have made me almost despair of ascertaining what it represented, until Mr. Woodward 
discovered Dr. Mantell' s original specimen in the vaults of the British Museum. The 
specimen is very imperfect, a part of the back on the younger side of the whorl being 
worn off", and the whole being so much crushed as to reduce the size of the umbilicus 
considerably, and to render the whorls flatter, and the back less round, than in perfect 
specimens : nevertheless it is suflQcient to enable us to recognise the species with certainty. 

A. Lewesiensis, when full grown, much resembles A. peramplus ; but it is flatter, and 
the undulations are continued all across the side of the whorl, instead of stopping in the 
middle of its side, as in A. peramplus. The young shells of the two species have no 
resemblance, A. Leioesiensis being nearly smooth, and the other ornamented with nume- 
rous ribs, which cross over the back. The form of the lateral lobes of the septa is nearly 
the same in the two species ; but in A. Lewesiensis the dorsal lobe is very narrow, while 



AMMONITES. 47 

in A. peramplus the dorsal lobe is broad, and the superior lateral lobe thrown in conse- 
quence farther from the middle of the back. 

The A. Leioesiensis of the Mineral Conchology (my A. leptophyllus) has flatter whorls, 
a narrower aperture, more distinct ribs, an impressed line along the middle of the back, 
and the lateral lobes of the septa branching into most complicated subdivisions, in strong 
contrast with those of the true A. Lewesiensis. Hitherto it has only been found in the 
Upper Chalk. 

M. D'Orbigny's shell has no resemblance whatever to the A. Lewesiensis of Mantell, 
and very little to that of Sowerby. It is readily distinguished by a series of numerous 
short ribs, which, commencing outside the middle of the whorl, are continued towards the 
middle of the back, where they are suddenly interrupted by an impressed line : the septa 
are as minutely subdivided as in A. leptophyllus, but the lateral lobes are straight and 
regularly trifid. It is stated in the 'Paleont. Fran?.,' that this species is found in France, 
in the Lower Chalk : here I have only received it from the North of Ireland, from a bed 
which I suspect to belong to the Upper Chalk. In the ' Prodrome de Paleontologie,' 
p. 212, M. D'Orbigny, has named this species A. GoUevillensis, having learned that it 
difi'ers from the A. Lewesie7isis of Sowerby, and he removes its habitat from the Terrain 
Turonien, or Grey Chalk, wherein he quoted it in the ' Paleontologie Fran^aise,' to the 
Terrain Senonien, or White Chalk. 

M. d'Archiac, in his ' Histoire da Progres de la Geologic,' quotes A. Lewesiensis as 
peculiar to the Lower Chalk of France ; but I do not know to which of the three species 
here mentioned he alludes. 



37. Ammonites Wiestii, Sliarpe. Plate XXI, fig. 3. 

A. testa discoided, costatd : anfractihus paucis injlatis : costis 24i — SO promine?itidus, 
incBqualibus : dorso rotimdato, costato : umbilico parviusculo, prof undo : aperturd semi- 
ovatd. 

Shell discoidal, with few inflated whorls, ornamented with twenty-four to thirty strong, 
rounded ribs of unequal length, of which ten rise near the edge of the umbilicus, and the 
rest near the middle of the side of the whorl, and all are continued across the broad, 
rounded back, where they incline a little backwards : umbilicus deep and rather small, 
allowing half of the inner whorls to be seen : opening semi-ovate : the lobes of the septa 
have not been seen. 

Diameter, 2f inches ; height of the last whorl, 1 J inch ; width of the opening, 1|- inch. 

Very rare in the Chalk with silicious grains, Chardstock, Somersetshire. 

I have seen only one specimen of this elegant Ammoiite, which I have named after its 
discoverer, J. Wiest, Esq., of Chardstock, from whom I have received great assistance in 
the preparation of this work. 



48 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 



38. Ammonites leptophyllus, Sharpe. Plate XXI, fig. 2, and Plate XXH, fig. 1. 

Ammonites Lewesiensis, Sowerby. Mineral Conchology, t. 358. 

— — IfOrhigny. Prodrome de Paleontologie, vol. ii, p. 189. 

A. testa discoided, compresm, undidato-costatd : anfractibus lateraliter costatis^ dorso 
IcBvibus : costis numerosis, pauliim elevatis : dorso rotundato Icevi, lined angusta impresso .- 
vMbilico parvo : aperturd elevato-ellipticd : septorum lobis lateralibus ramosissimis, ramis 
irregulariter alternantibus. 

Shell discoidal, flattened at the sides, rounded at the back : sides of the whorls crossed 
by numerous radiating undulations, or low, broad ribs, which commence at the umbilicus, 
and die out before they reach the back : umbilicus small, bounded by steep sides, allowing 
more than half the inner whorls to be seen : back smooth and rounded, marked with a 
narrow, impressed line : opening high and narrow : lobes of the septa much subdivided ; 
the superior lateral lobe very large, w^ith numerous irregularly alternate branches, ending 
in long, pointed digits. In very old specimens the undulations are very faint, and 
gradually disappear. 

This species reaches a diameter of more than 2^ feet. The proportions of the specimen 
figured are — diameter, 12 inches; height of the last whorl, 5 inches; width of the 
aperture, 3 inches. 

Found in the Upper Chalk of Brighton, Ramsgate, Greenhithe, &c. ; but, from the 
softness of the chalk in which it occurs, it is very seldom met with in good preservation. 

This is not the species originally named by Dr. Mantell A. Leicesiensis, nor is it the 
species pubhshed under that name by M. D'Orbigny in the ' Paleontologie Francaise,' 
which is now called A. Gollevilleiisis ; but in his ' Prodrome de Paleontologie,' that author 
has so far corrected himself as to separate the last-named species from the one here 
described. 

As there have thus been three species passing under the name of A. Leicesiensis, it is 
impossible to know what is meant when this name is cited in geological works ; a com- 
parison of the three species is given, after the description of A. Lewesie?ms. 



39. Ammonites Gollevillensis, D'Orb. Plate XVII, fig. 2. 

Ammonites Lewesiensis, D'Orbigny. Paleont, Fran9. Terr. Cret., t. 101. 

— — Id. Prodrome de Paleontologie, vol. ii, p. 212. 

A. testa discoided, compressd, costatd: anfractibus lateraliter Icevibus, dorso cosfatis: 
costis brevibiis, numerosis, cequalibus, ad dorsum interruptis : dorso rotundato, costato, lined 



AMMONITES. 49 

angustd, castas inierrumjpente^ impresso : umbilico parviusculo : aperturd ovatd : septum 
lobis lateralihus trijidis ramosissimis. 

Shell discoidal, whorls smooth and flattened on the sides, and ribbed on each side of 
the rounded back ; ribs short, numerous, and equal, commencing beyond the middle of 
the side of the whorl, and suddenly interrupted at the middle of the back by a narrow, 
impressed line : umbilicus rather small, allowing about one third of the inner whorls to be 
seen : aperture oval : septa very numerous, with minutely subdivided lobes ; lateral lobes 
trifid, with regularly opposite branches. 

Diameter, IJ inch; height of the last whorl, 2 inches; width of the aperture, 
\\ inch. 

Rare in the hard Chalk of the county of Londonderry, which is supposed to be of the 
age of the Upper Chalk of England. 

This species is closely related to A. Oldhami, from which it is distinguished by its 
short ribs, nearly confined to the back, and its smooth sides. In the * Paleontologie 
Fran^aise,' M. D'Orbigny confounded this Ammonite with Sowerby's A. Lewesiensis 
{A. lepfophyllus, Sharpe), and quoted it from the upper beds of the " Craie Chloritce," or 
on the level of our Grey Chalk. In his ' Prodrome ' he separates it from that species, 
and considers the beds in which it is found as part of the Upper Chalk. 

It is difficult to understand how two such different species could ever have been con- 
founded, as the only character common to both is the impressed dorsal line. The lobes 
of the septa of both are much subdivided, with spiked terminal digits, but in A. GoUevil- 
lensis they are trifid, with opposite and extremely regular branches. In A. lep)top)liyllus 
they bifurcate several times with very unequal alternating branches, and great irregularity. 



40. Ammonites ctjrvatus, Mayitell. Plate VII, figs. 8, 9 ; Plate XXIII, fig. ] . 

Ammonites curvatus, Mantell. Fossils of the South Downs, p. 118, t. 21, fig. 18. 

— — Sowerbij. Miu. Conch., t. 5/9, fig. 2. 

— FALCATUS? Pictet and Roux. Gres Verts des Env. de Geneve, t. 5, fig. .5. 

A. testd discoided, sub-compressd, tuherculatd, jjlerimque costatd : anfractihus paucis 
suh-angulatis, lateribus depressis, tuberculatis ; dorso caiialiculato, utrinque bituberculato .• 
costis bicurvatis variantibus ; interdum paucis, latis, depressis ; interdum ad umbilicum 
numerosis, dorsum versus paucis, latisque ; scepte om7iino obsoletis: tuberculis utrinque tri- 
serialibus, ad umbilicum simplicibics, pr ope dorsum binis : 2cmbilico parvo : aperturd rhom- 
hoided : septorum lobis lateralibus tribus trijidis. 

Shell discoidal, flattened on the sides and back, with very few nearly rhomboidal 
whorls ; strongly tuberculated, and frequently ribbed : back with two rows of tubercles on 



50 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

each side, and a hollow canal in the middle : ribs falcate, very variable in number and 
size, and, rising from tubercles on the edge of the umbilicus, they extend forward to the 
middle of the side of the whorl, then suddenly turn backward, and again curve forward 
to the dorsal tubercles ; sometimes they are five in number, broad and depressed ; in 
other specimens they are small and numerous on the inner half, and broad and few on 
the outer half of the whorl ; frequently they are well marked on young shells, and 
gradually disappear with age ; and in many specimens they are altogether wanting : three 
rows of tubercles on each side of the whorl, one at the edge of the umbilicus, and two 
near the edge of the back ; the umbilical tubercles vary both in size and number ; when 
there are no ribs, the tubercles are few in number, and very large ; but they diminish in 
size, and increase in number, in proportion to the development of the ribs ; the dorsal 
tubercles are usually large, but they vary in number from 15 to 30, being fewest and 
largest where there are no ribs : umbilicus small and deep, allowing about one third of the 
inner whorls to be seen : aperture rhomboidal : septa with three trifid lateral lobes on 
each side. 

Diameter, 1| inch ; height of last whorl, f inch ; width of aperture, J to f inch. 

Found abundantly in the Chloritic Marl of the Isle of Wight ; the Chalk with 
silicious grains at Chardstock, Somersetshire ; and the junction bed of the Chalk and 
Upper Green Sand, near Warminster. 

In the first part of this Memoir, I followed M. D'Orbigny and most other modern 
palaeontologists in uniting together the Ammonites falcatus and curvatus of Mantell and 
Sowerby ; but, as better materials have appeared, I have been obliged to separate them 
again. Both are most variable species, and there are varieties which can only be distin- 
guished with difficulty. The only invariable distinction which I have found between them 
is in the termination of the superior lateral lobe, which is trifid in A. curvatus and bifid in 
A. falcatus ; see PI. XXIII, figs. 1 c and 2. In comparing the external forms, it will be 
found that the more tuberculated varieties aU belong to A. curvatus, the flatter, ribbed 
varieties to A. falcatus; but there are intermediate forms combining falcate ribs with 
dorsal tubercles, which can hardly be distinguished without the aid of the lateral lobe. 



41. Ammonites Salteri, Sharpe. Plate XXIII, figs. 3 and 5. 

A. testa discoided, cost aid, tuber culatd : costis ter-natis flexuosis, bi-tuberculatis, ad 
dorsum, interruptis : dorso utrinque tuberculato, tuberculis alternantibus : umbilico parvo : 
aperturd oblongd : septorum lobo dorsali longissimo. 

Shell discoidal, with few w^horls, ornamented with ribs and tubercles on their sides : 
back plain, and slightly elevated in the middle, with a row of tubercles on each side ; these 



AMMONITES. 51 

are not opposite to one another, but alternate : ribs flexuous, rising in threes from twelve 
large tubercles which surround the umbilicus, forming an irregular zigzag pattern on the 
side of the whorl, and ending at twenty-four rather smaller tubercles on the side of the 
back : two rows of tubercles on each side of the shell : umbilicus small, allowing about 
one third of the inner whorls to be seen : apertm'e oblong : septa with the dorsal lobe 
considerably longer than the trifid superior lateral lobe. 

Found by Mr. Wiest, in the Chalk with silicious grains, at Chardstock, Somersetshire. 



42. Ammonites Ramsatanus, Sharpe. Plate XXIII, fig. 4« — c. 

A. testa discoided, costatd, tuberculatd .• anfraciibus 2^o,ucis, sub-compressis : costis 
continuiSi bi-tuberculatis, ad dorsum bifurcantibus : dorso laio, rotmidato, costato, utrinque 
tuberculato .- umbilico parvo : aperturd oblongd. 

Shell discoidal, with few, slightly flattened whorls, and a broad, rounded back : the 
whorls are ornamented on the sides by twenty ribs, each of which rise from a small tubercle 
at the edge of the umbilicus, and bear another larger tubercle near the back ; at the latter 
tubercle each rib divides into two smaller ribs, which continue across the back, and unite 
again at the corresponding tubercle on the other side of the back : umbilicus small, 
allowing nearly half of the inner whorls to be seen : aperture oblong -. the septa have not 
been seen. 

Diameter, 1^ inch ; height of the last whorl, |- inch ; width of the aperture, \ inch. 

Very rare in the Chalk with silicious grains, at Chardstock, Somersetshire. 

The only specimen which has been seen of this species is deformed, owing, without 
doubt, to an accident met with when very young. In consequence of this malformation, 
the two sides have very little resemblance to each other ; and the specific character given 
above may prove incorrect when more perfect specimens are met with. 

A. Mamsayanus belongs to the group of the Coronarii, which, for the most part, belong 
to the lower and middle divisions of the Oolitic series : its nearest congeners are perhaps 
A. Hump/iriesianus and A. Brackenridgii. It is the second species of that group which 
has been found in the Chalk; A. catinus having been the first. 

This species is named after Professor Ramsay, of the Geological Survey of Great 
Britain. 



43. Ammonites Feraudianus, D'Orb. Plate XXIII, fig. Q>a — c. 

[" A. testa compressd, transversim costatd : costis incequalibus, reciis ; dorso complanato, 



52 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

laleraliter aiigulato, anfradibus compressis, sub-quadrilateralihus, ultimo tVV; aperturd 
oblongd, antice truncatd." — D'Orhigni/, 'Terr. Cret.,' t. i, p. 324. 

The species thus described by M. D'Orbigii}', in 1840, was said to have been dis- 
covered by M. Enieric in the " Craie Chloritces " at Vergons, Basses-Alpes ; but in a 
later work, the ' Prodrome de Paleontologie,' t. ii, p. 98, it is referred to the " Neocomien 
superieur ou Urgonien." 

The specimen figured in Plate XXHI, fig. 6, was obtained by Mr. Sharpe from the 
Grey Chalk at Ventnor, in the Isle of Wight, and named by him " Feraudianus ;" but as 
no memorandum exists to support this identification, it might possibly have been changed, 
as it rests upon a single, crushed, and immature specimen.] 



44. Ammonites Bravaisianus, D'Orb. Plate XXHI, figs, la, b, 8, and 9. 

Ammonites Bra VAisiANUS, TfOrhigny. Paleontologie Frangaise, Terrains Cretaces, t. 91, 

figs. 3 and 4. 

A. testd compressd, carinatd, costatd : costis incequalibiis, simplicibus vel bifurcatis, 
dorsum versus bituberculatis, interriiptis : dorso carinato ; carind elevatd, acuid : umbilico 
magno : aperturd ohlongd. 

Shell discoidal, with few depressed whorls, which are ornamented by about thirty 
transverse, slightly flexuous ribs : back keeled : the ribs are unequal, either simple and 
alternately long and short, or occasionally branching in pairs from the edge of the 
umbilicus ; each rib terminates at the side of the back, where it is ornamented with two 
smaller tubercles : keel distinct, sharp, and elevated : umbilicus large, allowing two thirds 
of the inner whorls to be seen : aperture oblong. 

Diameter, 1 inch ; height of last whorl, J inch ; width of aperture, \ inch. 

Found in a hard bed of the Middle Chalk, near Dover. In France it has been found 
in the Upper Green Sand of the department of Vaucluse. 

This pretty little Ammonite has some resemblance to A. v avians, from which it is at 
once distinguished by the pair of tubercles at the termination of each rib. Moreover, its 
ribs are simpler than in that species, and never fork on the middle of the side of the whorl. 
As yet A. Bravaisianus has only been found in this country in one bed of rather hard 
Chalk, which occurs near the bottom of the Chalk with Flints, and contains A. peramplus, 
Scaphites, and several other species of MoUusca hitherto undescribed, and only known in 
that bed. 



AMMONITES. 53 



45. Ammonites Wiltonensis, Sharpe. Plate XXIII, fig. 10 a — c. 

[A. testa compressdy transversim costatd, costis parvis, numerosis, obtusis, inaqualihus ; 
aperturd elongatd, antice rotundatd ; umbilico parvo. Lat. maj., 13 ; min., 11 ; alt., 6 lines. 

This figure is taken from a small Ammonite in hard, gritty Chalk, with green stains, 
stated to have been found near Devizes, by Mr. W. Cunnington. The form is unusual 
in the Chalk ; the ribs are simple, and sub-equal on the back of the shell, but many 
become obsolete on the sides, the remainder becoming stronger at the umbilicus ; the 
sutural lobes are few and rather simple.] 



46. Ammonites Jukesii, Sharpe. Plate XXIII, fig. 11 a — e. 

[A. tesid discoided, late umbilicatd, transversim costatd; costis numerosis, acutis ; an- 
fractibus sub-compressis, interduni constrictis ; aperturd ovatd. 

This specimen figured is the fragment of an Ammonite which, when perfect, probably 
measured 5 or 6 inches in diameter ; it consists of about one third of the external volution 
and portions of two inner whorls, which have been detached, and represented separately 
(fig. 11 b, c). The curvature of the ribs is convex towards the aperture; but the figures 
are not only reversed, but placed upside down. The outer whorl shows one of the 
periodic constrictions, and another is seen on the inner whorl when detached, and also a 
more prominent rib on the posterior side of the constriction. 

Ammonites JuJcesii was discovered by Colonel Portlock, R.E., in the hard Chalk of the 
county of Londonderry.] 



Genm — Apttchus, H. Von Meyer. 1821.* 

The operculum [or calcarious plates presumed to have closed the aperture] of certain 
species of Ammonites, of which there are three forms distinguished by Voltz : 

1. Comely consisting of a single horny plate, of a semi-circular, semi-elliptic, or 
truncato- ovate form, marked by concentric wrinkles, with a semi-circular notch on the 
middle of the straight side. 

2. Imbricati, consisting of a pair of equal plates, each a quarter of a circle, or quarter 

* The name Trigonellites, given by Parkinson, who described and figured several forms in 1811 ('Org. 
Rem.,' iii, 184), ought to have been employed. Meyer added nothing to our knowledge respecting them. 

9 



54 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

of an ellipse, in form, marked on one or both sides by strong concentric lines or wrinkles, 
produced by the imbricated growth of the shell ; each plate has a fold along its straight 
side, the fold of one plate lapping over that of the other : the plates usually thin. 

3. Cellidosi, consisting of a pair of plates, similar in form to those of the Lnbricati, 
and meeting in the same manner, but thick, and with the convex side cellular in structure. 

Few organic remains have given rise to more different opinions than these curious 
bodies. [Professor Quenstedt regards them as the opercula of Ammonites, a view which 
has been generally adopted in Germany. See Woodward's 'Manual,' 1851, p. 80, and 
Owen's 'Lectures on the Invertebrata,' 2d edit., 1855, p. 596. In Part I, p. 19, of this 
Monograph, the concave side of the Aptychus is incorrectly stated to have been external 
instead of the convex side.] 

All the AptycJii yet found in the Chalk belong to the group of the Lnbricati ; they 
have all very thin shells, owing to which they are seldom found perfect ; and they are all 
from the Upper or Middle Chalk.* As there is now httle doubt that these bodies really 
belong to some part of Ammonites, I have endeavoured to assign them to their respective 
species of Ammonites, in which I have been guided by a comparison of the form and size 
of the Aptycld with the apertures of the Ammonites found in the same beds of the Chalk 
Formation, and in the same localities, for I am not aware that any Ammonite has yet been 
found in the Chalk containing an Ajjtychus within it. As there are but few species of 
Ammonites known in the Upper and Middle Chalk, the comparison is more satisfactory 
than might have been anticipated ; but the result is only conjectural, as the discovery of 
other species of Aptychus or of Ammonites might materially alter our conclusions on this 
subject. 

The species of Ammonites known in the Upper and Middle Chalk are A. Griffithii and 
A. Oldhamii, only known in Ireland, whence I have seen no AptycJd ; for which they are 
excluded from the comparison. 

A. GoUevillensis,^ found in the Upper Chalk in Ireland and the North of France, and 
which may consequently be expected to occur here. 
A. FortlocH,*} 

A. Icenicus,* )in the Upper Chalk of Norwich. 
A. Velledcs,'' J 

A. leptophjllus,^' in the Upper Chalk of Kent and Sussex. 
A. peramjjhis,* 1 

A. Woolgari, in the jMiddle Chalk of our Southern Counties. 
A. Bravaisianus,) 

The species marked * have round backs, and belong to Von Buch's family of Ligati. 
A. Woolyari has a serrated keel, and belongs to the Rothomagenses ; A. Bravaisianus 

* :^Ir. FloM-er has also found two species in Flint Pebbles in the Gravel, near Croydon. 



APTYCHUS. 55 

has a sharp keel, and may be excluded from the comparison, as it is too small to admit 
any of the AjAijcld yet found. 

As yet we have only seven forms of AptycUus from the Chalk, six of which have so 
many characters in common, that it is natural to suppose that they belong to Ammonites 
of the same, or nearly alHed groups ; the remaining species, A. rugosus, differs in having 
the convex side strongly ribbed. 

In Plate XXIV, which is devoted to this subject, are represented all the known 
Aplychi of the Chalk, and outlines of the openings of the various Ammonites to which it 
seems probable that the AjAychi may belong ; and, to facilitate the comparison, a dotted 
line is drawn across each opening. It must be remembered that the two plates of the 
Apfychi did not lie flat in the same plane, but were shghtly inclined towards one another 
[on the inner side], in which position the width they occupied would be rather less than 
when they are represented lying side by side on the plate. 

Among the AptycJd belonging to the Chalk, figured by Continental authors, Aptychus 
cretaceus, of Miinster, so nearly approaches several of those which are here described, as 
to show that they belong to nearly allied Ammonites. But sad confusion has been made 
with that specific name. Geinitz gives three figures of Aptychus cretaceus {' Charakteristik 
des Sachsischen Kreidegebirges,' t. 17, figs. 25 a and b and 26), which evidently belong 
to three different species ; another distinct species is figured under the same name by 
Reuss (' Versteinerungen der Bohmischen Kreideformation,' t. 7, fig. 13), and both these 
authors refer to Aptychus cretaceus, the plate described under the name of Anatifa convexa, 
by Roenier (' Kreidegebirges,' t. 16, fig. 7), which, if the figures are to be trusted, differs 
from aU the others. 



Aptychus LEPXoPHYLLrs, Sharpe. Plate XXIV, fig. 1 a, h. 

A. bivalvis, subtruncato-ovatus ; valvis imbricatis, latere convexo Icevi, latere concavo 
concentrice lineato ; jjlicd media inconspicud. 

Bivalve, thin, the united valves ovate, with a slight truncation at the lower end ; outer 
edge reflected : the convex side smooth ; the concave side delicately marked by very close, 
concentric imbrications : medial fold narrow, and but little elevated. 

Height, 1 \ inch ; breadth of each valve, \ inch. 

Pound in the Upper Chalk, near Brighton, by Mr. Morris. 

The form of this Ajjtychus corresponds to that of the opening of Ammonites leptophyllus, 
and which is also found in the Upper Chalk, near Brighton ; for these reasons it is probable 
that it belongs to that species. 



56 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 



Aptychus Portlocki, Sharpe. Plate XXIV, figs. 2, 3, and 4 (6 ?) 

A. bivalvis, transversim semi-ellipticus ; valvis imbricatisy vtrinque concentrice sulcatis ; 
sulcis distantihus ; plica media elevatd. 

Bivalve, the united valves forming, transversely, a semi-ellipse, with a uniform curve 
to the outer margin ; valves thin., marked on both sides by rather distant concentric 
furrows, produced by the terminations of the broad imbricated additions to their outer 
edges : medial fold large, and separated from the rest of the valve by a deep furrow. 

Height, J inch ; breadth of each valve, ^ inch. 

Found in the Upper Chalk, near Norwich, by Mr. Bayfield ; and in a Flint Pebble, in 
the Gravel, near Croydon. 

Of the Aptychi yet met with in the Upper Chalk, this species has the transverse 
diameter of its united valves greatest in proportion to its height ; and Ammonites Portlocki 
is the only species known in the Upper or Middle Chalk which has the diameter of its 
mouth greater than its height (see Plate XXIV, fig. L2). Moreover, the curves of the 
respective outlines of the two nearly correspond, and both are found in the Upper Chalk, 
near Norwich. The probability of this Aptychus belonging to A. Portlocki is therefore 
very strong. 

One of the three forms figured by Geinitz under the name of Aptychus cretaceus 
(' Charakteristik, &c., des Siichsischen Kreidegebirges,' t. 17, fig. 25 a) nearly resembles 
A. Portlocki in outline, but, being a fragment, its proportions are not shown ; and it is 
distinguished by its closely set imbrications from our species. 

Anatifa convexa, Roemer, ' Kreidegeb.,' t. 16, fig. 7, is the plate of an Aptychus 
closely approaching A. Portlocki ; but his figure and description do not enable me to 
identify them. 



Aptychus Gollevillensis, Sharpe. Plate XXIV, fig. 5. 

A. bivalvis, truncato-ovatus ; valvis imbricatis, utrinque concentrice sulcatis ; sulcis 
approximatis : plied jnedid elevatd. 

Bivalve, truncato-ovate, the united valves forming about two thirds of the shape of an 
egg ; very convex, especially towards the outer edges : valves thin, marked on both sides 
by closely set concentric furrows, produced by the terminations of the narrow imbricated 
additions to the outer edges : medial fold elevated, and sharply separated from the rest of 
the valve by a deep furrow. 



APTYCHUS. 57 

Height, f- inch ; breadth of each valve, f inch. 

Found in the Upper Chalk of Norwich, by Mr. T. G. Bayfield, and in Fhnt Pebbles in 
the Gravelj near Croydon. 

Of the Ammonites found in the Upper Chalk, the one of which the outhne of the 
mouth most nearly resembles this Apiyclius is A. GoUevillensis (PL XXIV, fig. 15). I 
have not seen this species of Ammonite from Norwich ; but as, besides being found in the 
North of Ireland, it occurs in France, in the Upper Chalk of the department of the 
Manche, it may be expected to occur also on our side of the Chaunel ; so that it is probable 
that the Aptychus here described belongs to Ammonites GoUevillensis. 

Of the varieties of Aptychus cretaceus figured by Geinitz, one form {I. c., 1. 17, fig. 25 ^) 
approaches our species, but does not admit of absolute identification with it. 



Aptychus Icenicus, Sharpe. Plate XXIV, fig. 7 a, b. 

A.bivalviSyOvalis ; valvis imbricatis : latere convexo rugis paucis, latisjonyitudinalibm, 
inconspicuis, ornato : plica media parvd. 

Bivalve, very thin ; oval, with nearly straight sides : valves very convex, especially 
towards the lower end : the convex side faintly marked by a few broad, longitudinal folds, 
which are not parallel to one another, and which cross the imbrications : medial fold small 
and straight : the concave side has not been seen. 

Height, I" inch ; breadth of each valve, 5 inch. 

Found in the Upper Chalk, near Norwich, by Mr. T. G. Bayfield. 

Ammonites Icenicus is the only species yet seen from the Upper Chalk which has its 
opening correspondnig to the peculiar outline of this Aptychus, which has its sides nearly 
straight, and its two extremities nearly equal ; and as both are found in the Upper Chalk, 
near Norwich, there is every probability that they must be connected. 



AriTCHUs RUGOsus, Sharpe. Plate XXIV, figs. 8 a, b, and 9. 

[A. bivahis, truncato-oblongus ; valvis imbricatis^ latere convexo corrugatis, plicis dis- 
tantibus, elevatis, tuberculatis, ayitice angulariter injlectis. 

Bivalve ; together oval or oblong, and notched at each end ; separate plates nearly 
flat, thin, finely imbricated by fines of growth on the concave side, and ornamented with 
elevated wi-inkles on the outer surface; ridges from \ line to 1 line apart, irregularly 
tuberculated, sub-parallel with the outer margin, and bent back at a sharp angle at the 
upper end ; slightly irregular and flexuous, and becoming obsolete near the suture. 



58 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

Height of largest specimen (fig. 9), 2\ inches ; breadth of single valve, 11 lines. Small 
pair (fig. 8), height, IJ inch; breadth, 1 inch. 

From the Upper Chalk of Norwich, in the collections of Mr. John King and Mr. 
T. G. Bayfield.] 



Aptychus peramplus, S/iarpe. Plate XXI V^ fig. 10 a, I/. 

A. bivalvis ; truncato-ovatus ? valvis imbricatis, latere convexo comigaiis, latere concavo 
subtiliter concentrice lineatis : plica media elevatd. 

Bivalve ; truncato-ovate ? valves imbricated, thin near the medial fold, thicker towards 
the edge ; convex side corrugated, the corrugations covered with irregular and unequal 
tubercles ; concave side marked by fine concentric lines, indicating the edges of the closely 
set imbrications : medial fold large. 

From the Chalk, near Norwich, in the collection of Mr. Bayfield. 

I have only one fragment of this Aptyclms, 1^ inch in breadth, and can offer but an 
imperfect description of it : the convex side is concealed in the specimen, and the direc- 
tion of the corrugations cannot be seen. It is with great hesitation that I propose to 
connect it with Ammo7iites peramplus. 

[This specimen was described by Mr. Bayfield in 1S51 ('Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History,' 2d series, vol. viii, p. 236), being the first instance on record of the 
occurrence of Trigonellites in the English Chalk.] 



Since the preceding descriptions of the species of Aptychus were in type, a memoir* 
has appeared on the Cretaceous Fossils of Meudon, France, by M. Ed. Hebert, in which 
three species of Aptychus are described ; A. obtusus, crassus, and insignis, the last form 
being closely allied to, if not identical with, A. rugofms, above noticed. 



* Mem. Soc. Geol. de la France, vol. v, p. '6i57, pi. 28. 



TURRILITES 59 



Genus— TVUmUTES, Lamarck. 1801. 

Animal unknown : shell chambered, turreted, usually sinistral, with numerous angular 
whorls, twisted spirally round a central cavity, and contiguous throughout on their upper 
and lower sides : chambers separated by transverse, flexuous septa, deeply sinuated towards 
the edges, and divided into six branching lobes, which are un symmetrical, those on the 
outer side of the whorls being much larger than the corresponding lobes on the inner side •. 
spire traversed by a continuous tube, situated on the outer side of the whorl, a little below 
the suture : mouth of the adult shell produced downwards, and bent over somewhat into 
the form of a hood. 

The genus Turrilites, as it has been usually received, includes, in addition to the shells 
here classed in it, other chambered, turreted species, with contiguous, rounded whorls, 
and the siphuncle placed on the middle of the outer side of the w^horl. I have ventured 
to remove these species to the genus Helicoceras, with which they agree in the round form 
of their whorls, and in the position of their siphuncle, and only differ in having their 
whorls contiguous instead of separate. The importance of that difference is destroyed by 
our finding a species with rounded whorls, Helicoceras or Turrilites pohjplocus, Roemer, 
in which the whorls are separate during the early part of their growth, contiguous in 
theii' next stage, and again separate when full grown ; in consequence of which it has been 
moved from one to the other genus, according to the part of the spire which w'as described. 
M. D'Orbigny had already pointed out that there w^ere two very distinct groups of 
Turrilites, and assigned their characters — 1st, the rotundati, which are those which I 
propose to unite to Helicoceras; 2d, the angulati, which form the genus Turrilites, as here 
retained. 

The produced, arched mouth has not yet been seen in all the Turrilites, but there are 
indications of it in so many species, that it may be presumed to be universal in the genus. 
I can find no evidence that this mouth w^as formed more than once during the life of the 
animal, as is conjectured by M. D'Orbigny ('Terr. Cret.,' p. 570); on the contrary, we 
find that, before the mouth is produced, there is always some modification in the form of 
the ribs which would betray the previous position of the produced mouth, if such had 
existed and had been absorbed by the animal ; but no specimens show any such irret^u- 
larity of the ribs in any of the upper whorls, so that \\% must conclude that the mouth 
was only produced once, and the difiierent size of individuals of the same species on 
which this occurs only show that some reached their adult form sooner than others. 

There is very little diS'erence in Turrilites between their forms and ornaments in the 
young and older stages of their growth, excepting near the produced mouth ; so tliat the 
species may be recognised in specimens of any size or age. 



GO FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

None of the group of the rotundati have been found with the produced mouth like the 
Turrilifes, and the only modification known in the adult shells of that group is a thicken- 
ing of the edge of the mouth : probably this will be found to be another generic difference 
between Turrilites and Helicocerm. 



Classification of Turrilites. 

L Rotundati, lyOrh. Whorls round ; siphuncle near the middle of the exterior side 

of the whorl ; ribs simple ; mouth thickened. 
Common in the Gault. 
T. aciiticostatus, D'Orb. C. C. 

2. Angulati, D'Orb. WTiorls angular; siphuncle near the suture; mouth covered 

with a hood. 

2 a. Lateral lobe trifid ; ribs or tubercles not arranged in regular lines 
across the whorl. 
T. tuberculatus, Bosc. L. Chalk. 
T. Gravesianus, D'Orb. PI. 144, fig. 3. L. Chalk. 
T. Mantelli, Sharpe. 

2 c a. Lateral lobe trifid ; tubercles in regular rows across the 
whorl. 
' T. Bergeri, Brong. Gault and L. Chalk. 

2 h. Lateral lobe bifid ; tubercles or ribs arranged in regular Unes 
across the whorl. 
T. catenatus, D'Orb. PI. 140, fig. 1. Gault. 
T. Puzosianus, D'Orb. PI. 143, fig. 1. Gault. 
T. Scheuchzerianus, Bosc. L. Chalk, 

T. costatus, Lam. L. Chalk. 
T. Wiestii, Sharpe. L. Chalk. 

2 c. Lateral lobe bifid ; tubercles not in regular rows across the 
whorl. 
T. Morrisii, Sharpe. U. G. Sand and L. Chalk. 



TURRILITES. 61 



1. TuRRiLiTEs TUBERcuLATUs, Bosc. Plate XXV, figs. 1 to 4, and PL XXVI, figs. 15, 16. 

TuRRiLiTES TUBERCULATUS, Bosc. Buff. da Detcrville, Vers., t. 42, fig. S. 

— — Sow. Min. Conch., t. 74. 

— — Mnntell. Geol. of Sussex, t. 24, fig. 7. 

— — B'Orb. Pal. Franc. Terr. Cre't., t. 144, figs. 1, 2. 

— — Pictet and Roux. Foss. des Gres Vert de Geneve, t. 15, fig. 10. 

VAKICOSA, 505C. Z. C, p. 190. 

— GIGANTEUS, Haan. Mon. Amm. et Gouiat., p. 78. 

T. testa turritd, sinistrorsd : anfractibus numerosis, extra convexis, tuherculato-spinosis : 
tuberculis ^-serialibus ; serie superiori, in medio anfractuum, tuberculis 20 distantibus, 
maximis, spinosis ; seriebus tribus inferioribus prope suturam tuberculis parvis, numerosis, 
approximatis ■■ nngulo spirali 16° — 20°. 

Shell turreted, with a spiral angle of 16° to 20°, sinistral : whorls numerous, rounded 
externally, with one row of above 20 very large spinose tubercles near their middle, and 
three rows of numerous small tubercles near their base, the lowest of which three rows is 
concealed by the suture ; the tubercles of the middle row have a rounded base, those of 
the three lower rows are elongated in a direction parallel to the suture, and are of the 
same number in each row : upper and lower sides of the whorls ornamented with faint, 
radiating ribs, corresponding to the tubercles of the lowest row : umbilicus narrow : 
section of the whorls nearly rhomboidal, with the outer side convex : mouth somewhat 
produced, and rising to a blunt point on the inner side of the whorl, and surrounded by a 
wing-shaped expansion, with a nearly semicircular outhne. 

The figures 1 and 4 represent the usual form of this species, with nearly twice as manv 
tubercles in the lower rows as there are in the upper one ; but specimens are often found 
like fig. 3, with less difi'erence between the different rows in the size and number of the 
tubercles, and with the two lower rows of tubercles almost coalescing. I have seen no 
specimen in which these two varieties are found in the same individual, as is represented 
in M. D'Orbigny's fig. 1 ; but as the lobes of the septa of the two forms closely correspond, 
we must presume that they belong to the same species. In very large individuals the 
tubercles of the upper row are fewer in number, and proportionably larger. 

The lobes of the septa are much divided and branching ; the outer side of the whorl 
holds half of the dorsal lobe, the dorsal saddle, and half of the superior lateral lobe, which 
last has five principal branches ; the dorsal saddle is divided into two nearly equal parts, 
and each of tliese is divided into two nearly equal branches (fig. 15). This is the character 
by which T. tuber culatus is best distinguished from T. Gravesianus, which has the dorsal 
saddle divided into two very unequal parts, oidy the upper of which is again divided. 

The larger specimens of r^rr/ZZ/cs- are never found perfect, so that their length must be 

10 



62 FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

calculated. The specimen of this species figured in the ' Mineral Conchology ' has a 
diameter of 5 inches in the lower whorl, and must have been above 18 inches long. The 
common-sized specimens have their largest diameter about 2^ inches, and probably 
reached 9 or 10 inches in length. 

Common in the Grey Chalk of the South of England, and in the Chloritic Marl of the 
Isle of Wight, and the Chalk with siliceous grains, of Dorset and Somerset. 



2. TuRRiLiTES Gravesianus, B'Orhigny. Plate XXV, fig. 7, and Plate XXVI, fig. 14. 

TuRRTLiTES Gravesianus, B'Orb. Pal. Fran9. Terr, Cret., t. 144, figs. 3 — 5. 
— TUBERCLLATCS, Mantell. Geol. of Sussex, t. 24, fig. 6. 

T. testa turrito-conicd, sinistrorsd ; avfractihm paucioribus, extra angulato-convexis, 
tubercidato spinosis : tubercidis A serialibus ; serie superiore, in medio anfractuuw, tuher- 
culis 10 — 12 maximis, spinosis, distantibus ; seriebus tribus inferioribus prope suturam 
tuber cutis parvis, numerosis, opproximatus ; anpdo spirali 30°. 

Shell conical, with a spiral angle of about 30°, sinistral : whorls few, externally convex, 
and somewhat angular in the middle, with one row of 10 or 12 very large spinose tuber- 
cles a little above their middles, and three rows of numerous small tubercles near their 
base ; the two lowest of these rows are so near together that the tubercles almost coalesce, 
and are partially concealed by the suture ; the tubercles of the upper row have a rounded 
base, those of the other three rows are elongated in a direction parallel to the suture, and 
are of the same number in each row : upper and lower sides of the whorls ornamented with 
radiating ribs, corresponding to the tubercles of the lowest row : umbilicus narrow : section 
of the whorls somewhat pentagonal : the perfect mouth has not been seen. 

The lobes of the septa are much divided, and form a very complicated pattern; the 
dorsal lobe, dorsal saddle, and nearly two thirds of the superior lateral lobe are visible on 
the outer side of the whorl ; the latter has four principal branches, of very unequal size : 
the dorsal lobe is short ; the dorsal saddle is very large, and unevenly divided, the upper 
half having two principal branches, of which the upper ends in three, the lower in two 
terminal brancblets ; the lower half of the dorsal saddle has only one undivided straight 
branch, parallel to the siphuncle : this peculiarity in the dorsal saddle distinguishes the 
species from T. tuberculatus ; the superior lateral lobe is very»large, and is divided into 
five large branches (Plate XXVI, fig. 14). 

Diameter of the largest whorl. If inch ; presumed length, 5 inches. 

Rare in the Grey Chalk, near Lewes, and in the Chloritic Marl of Ventnor, Isle of 
Wight. 

The external form of this species is very similar to that of T. tuberculatus, with which 



TURRILITES. 63 

it was long coiifoimded. M. D^Orbigny pointed out the distinctions between them, which 
consist in the shorter and blunter spire, fewer and larger tubercles of T. Gravesianus. 
Slightly crushed specimens of T. tuberculatus are sometimes very difficult to distinguish 
from T. Gravesianus, unless the outline of the septa can be traced, when the different forms 
of the dorsal saddles set all doubts on the subject immediately at rest. 



3. TuRRiLiTEs Mantelli, Sliarpc. Plate XXV, figs. 5 and 6. 

T. testa turritd, sinistrorsd : anfractibus numerosis, extra convexis, tuberculatis : tuber- 
culis 4 serialibus ; serie superiori, in medio anfractuum, tuber cutis 20 — 24, basi rotundatis ; 
seriebus tribus inferior ibus, tubercuUs "60 tninoribus, basi elonrjatis, approximatis : angulo 
spirali 1 8°— 20°. 

Shell turreted, with a spiral angle of 18° to 20°, sinistral: whorls numerous, convex 
externally, with one row of 20 to 24 tubercles near their middle, and three rows of about 
30 smaller tubercles near their base, the lowest of which rows is hid by the suture; the 
tubercles of the middle row have a rounded base, those of the three lower rows are 
elongated in a direction parallel to the suture, and are of the same number in each row : 
upper and lower sides of the whorls ornamented with radiating ribs, corresponding to the 
tubercles of the lower row : umbilicus narrow : mouth somewhat produced, and rising to a 
blunt point on the inner side of the whorl, and surrounded by a broad, wing-shaped 
expansion of somewhat rhomboidal form. 

Only a small part of the outline of a septum has been seen, which is shown on the 
upper whorl of fig. 5 ; the dorsal saddle is divided into two unequal parts, which are inter- 
mediate in form between those of T. tuberculatus and T. Gravesianus, more nearl\- 
resembling the latter. 

Diameter of last whorl, 2^ inches; probable length, 12 inches. 

Rare in the Grey Chalk, near Lewes, Sussex. 

This species is readily distinguished from T. tuberculatum by the greater number and 
smaller size of the tubercles of the upper row, which are almost as numerous as those of 
the three lower rows. There is also a marked difference in the rhomboidal form of the 
expanded margin of the mouth. These distinctions will probably be strengthened when a 
more complete view is obtained of the lobes of the septa. 

The only specimens which I have seen were collected by Dr. Mantell, and are now in 
the British Museum. The specific name is therefore a just tribute to the memory of that 
zealous geologist. 



FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 



4. TuRRiLiTES ScHEUCHZERiANUS, Bosc. Plate XXVI, figs. 1 — 3. 

TuRBiLiTES ScHELCHZKRiAKUS, Bosc. Butfou du DeterviUe, vol. v, p. 190. 

— UNDULATUS, Sow. Min. Con., t. 75, figs. 1 — 3. 

— — Mantell. Fossils of the South Downs, t. 23, figs. 14 and 1 6 ; t. 24, 

tig. 8. 

— — Geinitz. Kreide, t. 13, figs. 1—3. 

— — UOrb. Paleont. Fran9. Terr. Cr6t., t. 146, figs. 3, 4. 

— Desnoyeusi, D'Orb. Paleont. Frau^. Terr. Cret., t. 146, figs. 1, 2. 

T. testa turritd, sinistrorsd : anfractihm nmnerosis, extra rotundatis, costatis : costis 
numerosis, sub-anffulatls ; junioribus inierruptis ; adultis continuis : angulo spirali 
15°— 18°. 

Shell turreted, with a spiral angle of 15° to 18°, sinistral: whorls numerous, rounded 
externally, crossed by 20 to 24 sharp, elevated ribs ; on the upper whorls the ribs are 
nearly straight, and broken into two unequal parts by a depression a little below their 
middle ; towards the middle of the shell the depression gradually disappears, and on the 
lower whorls the ribs continue uninterruptedly across the whorl, and become more and 
more flexuous : upper and under sides of the whorls smooth : umbilicus very small : mouth 
produced considerably do\Miwards, partially arched over, and expanded towards the 
umbilicus : the outline of the septa has not been seen. 

Diameter of last whorl, If inch; estimated length, 8 inches. 

Common in the Grey Chalk, wherever that bed occurs, in the South of England. 

This species is so well distinguished from all the other Turrilites by its elongated form 
and comparatively simple ribs, that it had remained free from all confusion, until M. 
D'Orbigny unfortunately proposed the specific name of T. Desnoyersi for its youno- form, 
and gave an appearance of probability to his suggestion by representing both the youno- 
and the old forms as full grown shells on his plate 140, without any variation in the ribs 
during the growth of either.* Such errors are the natural consequence of what is called 
restoring the entire form of a shell from a fragment, instead of representing what is actually 
seen. Dr. Mantell had already given an admirable figure of a nearly perfect specimen, 
exhibiting the change from the broken ribs of the upper whorls to the unbroken ribs of 
the older whorls, which ought to have preserved M. D'Orbigny from this unnecessary 
addition of a synonym. 

Figure 2 represents a young shell, with ribs still divided, which is already beginning 

* Figures 1 and 3, plate 146, are both stated to be "restaure sur un echautillon de ma collection." 
D'Orb., 'Terr. Cret.,' vol. i, pp. G02 and 604. 



TURRILITES. 65 

to form a mouth like au adult, with the ribs becoming flexuous. A still younger sliell, 
with the produced mouth completed, is shown in fig. 3 ; but as this specimen has the 
lower side of the whorl strongly ribbed, it may be doubted whether it belongs to the 
same species. 



5. TuRRiLiTES MoRRisii, Sliarpp. Plate XXVI, figs. 4 — S. 

T. testa turritd, sinistrorsd : anfradihus numerosis, extra planiusculis tuberculafis : 
tuberculis 3 vet 4 serialibus ; serie superiori, in medio anfraduum, tuherctdis 8 — 12 
majonbus,distantibus ; seriebus inferioribus prope suturam, tuberculis minoribas^ numerosis : 
angulo spirali 15°. 

Shell turreted, wdth a spiral angle of about 15°, sinistral: whorls numerous, nearly flat 
externally, with one row of 8 to 12 large tubercles near their middle, and two or three 
rows of above 20 smaller tubercles near the suture, all of them with a round base : upper 
and lower sides of the whorls ornamented with faint, radiating ribs, corresponding to the 
tubercles of the lowest row : umbilicus very narrow : section of the whorls rhomboidal : 
septa with the superior lateral lobe bifid, with four branches on each side, and the dorsal 
saddle divided into two very unequal parts : the perfect mouth has not been seen. 

In the young shell the three lower rows of tubercles are usually distinct; in older shells 
the tubercles of the two lower rows gradually coalesce, and at last hardly more than one 
row can be distinguished, close to tlie suture. 

Largest diameter, \\ inch; probable length, 6 inches. 

Common in the Chloritic Marl of the Isle of Wight, and in the Chalk with siliceous 
grains, Chardstock, Somersetshire. 



6. TuRRiLiTES Bergeri, Brougniart. Plate XXVI, figs. 9 — 11. 

TuRRiLiTES Bergeri, Brong. Env. de Paris, t. 7, fig. 3. 

— — D'Orb. Pal. Frau9. Terr. Cret., t. 143, figs. 3— f5. 

T. testd turritd, sinistrorsd {vel dextrorsd .'') : anfradibuspaucioribus, rotundatis, tuber- 
culatis : tuberculis 4 serialibus, csquidistantibus, ccqiialibus : aperturd rotundato-rJiomboided . 

Shell turreted, turned to the left : whorls not very numerous, increasing rapidly in 
size, rounded, and ornamented with four equidistant rows of numerous, rounded tubercles, 
which are of the same number, and nearly the same size in each row ; only three rows are 



fifi FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 

exposed, the upper one being covered by the next whorl ; the tubercles are so placed as to 
appear to form sloping, transverse bands across the whorls : section of the whorls somewhat 
rhoniboidal : septa, and position of the siphuncle, unknown. 

Spiral angle about 35°. 

Diameter of the largest specimens from Chardstock, in Mr. Wiest's collection, 3 inches. 

This is a well-marked shell, which can hardly be confounded with any other species. 
We have not met with any specimen turned to the right like that figured by M. D'Orbigny, 
t. 143, fig. 6. 

Abundant in the Chalk with green grains, at Chardstock. {Mr Wiest.) 



7. TuRRiLiTEs Bechii, Skarpe. Plate XXVI, fig. 13. 

T. testa turritd, sinistrorsd : anfractibus paiicioribus, extra rotiindatis, costatis, tubercu- 
laiisque : costis numerosis, superioribiis, Jlexuosis, tenuibus, infra interruptis : tuberculis 
biserialibus, inferioribus, numero costarum (squalibus : angulo spirali 30°. 

Shell turreted, sinistral, with a spiral angle of 20°: whorls few, externally rounded, 
prettily ornamented with numerous delicate, tlexuous ribs, which extend from the suture 
across the upper two thirds of the whorl, where they are interrupted by a smooth space, 
in which are two rows of tubercles, elongated in the direction of the suture, and equal in 
number to the ribs ; below these the ribs appear again, bending backwards over the lower 
side of the whorl ; thus each rib, with its corresponding pair of tubercles, forms a flexuous 
Hue across the outer and the under sides of the whorl : umbilicus small : the outline of the 
septa has only been partially seen ; the dorsal saddle is divided into two slightly unequal 
parts ; the specimen figured shows the beginning of a produced mouth. 

Diameter of last whorl, 1 inch ; estimated length, 4 inches. 

Only one specimen has been seen, which was found in the Chalk wdth siliceous grains, 
near Lyme Regis, by Sir H. T. de la Beche, and by him presented to the British Museum : 
it is named in honour of his memory. 



S. TuHRiLiTEs CO STATUS, Lamarck. Plate XX VH, figs. 1 — 5, and 15, 16. 

TuRKiLiTES cosTATUS, Za»?/c 1801. An. sans Yeit., p. 102. 

— — Sowerby. 1813. Min. Conch., t. 36. 

_ _ Brong. 1822. Env. de Paris, p. 83, t. 7, fig. 4. 

_ _ Mantell. \S22. Geol. of Sussex, t. 23, fig. 15. 

— — TfOrbigmj. Paleont. Franc., Terr. Crct., t. 14."(. 

— TiiiFLiCATUS, /. Sow. lu Dixon's Geol. of Sussex, t. 29, fig. 16. 



TURRILITES. G7 

T. testa elongato-turritdf smistrorsd, cosfatd et tuberculatd ; anfractibm convexius cu/i^, 
inferne costatis, superne hituherculatis ; costis tuberculisque numero (Bqualihus ; aperturd 
ovali ; umbilico niinimo. 

Shell turreted, turned to the left, with a spiral angle of about 25°; whorls slightly 
convex, separated by a moderately impressed suture, and ornamented on their lower half 
by numerous straight, elevated ribs, which rise at their upper ends into round tubercles, 
and then terminate abruptly at a smooth spiral band, which encircles the shell ; above are 
two rows of tubercles, the upper of which are smaller, and concealed by the next whorl ; 
ribs and tubercles equal in number ; aperture oval, higher than broad ; umbilicus very small. 

[The complicaied form of the septa in this species is represented in PI. XXVII, fig. 15.] 

In Dixon's ' Geology of Sussex,' a TurriUte is described under the name of T. tripli- 
catus, J. Sow., which appears to be a variety of the above. [This specimen is figured in 
PI. XXVII, fig. 15.] 

Found in the Chalk ^larl of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; and in the Chalk with green 
grains, at Chardstock. 



9. TuRRiLiTEs BiFRONS? D' Orb. Plate XXVII, figs. 6, 7. 

{T. testa turritd, elongatd, sinistrorsd ; anfractibiis conveximculis^sulcolongitudinaliter 
ornatis ; transve?'si??i costatis ; costis curvatis, interruptis , biseriatis, anterioribis ad 
suturam divisis. 

The specimens figured difier from the ordinary examples of T. costatus in the flatten- 
ing of the whorls, occasioned by the shallow furrow which divides the curved transverse 
ribs into a double series : the ribs are simple, rounded, and about as wide as the inter- 
spaces ; the lower series of ribs is again divided by a furrow exactly at the suture, forming 
a third set of little tubercles, only visible on the base of the shell when broken. 

Found in the Lower Chalk, of Ventnor.. Isle of Wight.] 



10. TuRRiLiTES WiESTii, SJiarpe. Plate XXVII, fig. 8, 9 a, b, and fig. 17. 

T. testa turritd^ sinistrorsd ; anfractibm externis rotundatis, tuberculatis, inius lavibus ; 
tubercuUs conicis 4 serialibus, numero equalibus, superiore et inferiore nmioribus, in suturd 
profujidd cremdatd, coalescentibus, mediis bitiis majoribus prominentibus ; aperturd sub- 
quadratd; umbilico parvo. 

Shell tui'reted, tuberculated ; spine turned to the left, with a spiral angle of about 22°; 
whorls rounded, separated by a deep, crenulated suture, ornamented with four rows of 
conical tubercles, which are of the same number in each row, and set obliquely under one 



68 FOSSIL MOLLUSC A OF THE CHALK. 

another, without ribs between them ; the tubercles of the two outer rows are smaller than 
the others, and meet at the junction of the valve?, forming a crenulated suture ; while the 
tubercles of the two middle rows, which are nearly equal, are prominent on the side of the 
whorls ; surface of the whorls between the the tubercles smooth ; aperture nearly square ; 
umbilicus small. 

The largest specimen seen has a diameter of 1^ inch, which requires a length of 4 or 
5 inches. 

As yet we have only seen it from the Chalk with green grains, where it is very 
abundant. 

This elegant shell is at once distinguished from T. mberculatus by having the same 
numbei" of tubercles in each row, in which it agrees with T. Bergeri. From this it differs 
in the shape of the whorl, and the position of the lower row of tubercles, which is at the 
suture instead of projecting at the side of the whorl : in consequence of this, it has only 
two rows of tubercles visible instead of three on the side of the whorl. 

Found in the Grey Chalk, of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; and also in the Chalk with green 
grains, at Chardstock, Somersetshire; and at Chaldon and Man-of-War Cove, Dorsetshire. 



n . TuRRiLiTES PuzcsiANUs, B'Orh., var.? Plate XXVII, fig. 11. 

? TuRRiLTTES PuzosiANUS, U Orbigny . Terr. Cret., pi. 143, figs. 1, 2. 

1\ testa turritd, sinistrorsd ; anfradibus externi planiuscidis, cosfulatis, tuberculafis ; 
cost is mcmerosis, flc'xuosis, obliqiiis, superne interruptis tuberculatisque ; tuber culis bi-seriali- 
bus, seriis superioris binis, inferior is longitudinaliter compressis ; aperturd ovali ; umbilico 
parvo. 

Shell turreted ; spine turned to the left, with a spiral angle of about 15°; whorls 
flattish, with the lower angle rounded otf, separated by a moderate suture, and ornamented 
with numerous oblique, flexuous, slight ribs, interrupted near the top of the whorl by a 
smooth spiral band, on each side of which the ribs rise into longitudinally flattened 
tubercles ; the tubercles of the upper row bifid or double, and stand at the angle of the 
whorl ; aperture somewhat oval ; umbilicus small. 

I have as yet only seen one fragment of this shell. It resembles T. Puzosianus, D'Orb., 
in having ribs rising into tubercles on each side of a smooth band, which, running round 
the upper part of the vvhoi'l, divides the ribs into two unequal parts. Our shell differs 
from T. Puzosianus in the flexure of the ribs, and in the position of the upper row of 
tubercles, which, in that species, is placed at the suture, and thus concealed by the next 
whorl ; but in this one it is at the upper angle of the whorl, and always prominent. It 
difiers from T. costatus in the flexure of the ribs and flatness of tlie whorls. 

Found in the Chloritic Marl, of Bonchurch, Isle of Wight. 



PLATE I. 

Fig. 
1, 2, and 3. Belemnitella mucronata ; from the Upper Chalk, near Norwich. 

1. Ventral view, with the fissure. 

2a and d. Dorsal and lateral views of a specimen, in which the vascular 

impressions are well seen. 
2c. Alveolus from above. 
3. Section of another specimen, showing the eccentric position of the 

alveolus, and traces of the edges of the septa. 

4, 5, and 6. Belemnitella lanceolata ; from the Uppier Chalk, near Norwich. 

4(2, d, and c. Dorsal, lateral, and ventral views of one specimen. 
4:d. Alveolus from above. 

5. Ventral view of a young specimen. 

6. Section of another specimen, showing the central alveolus. 

7. Belemnitella quadrata; from the Middle Chalk of Kent, in the collection of 

Mr. J. G. Lowe ; this specimen is broken at the top. 

7a. Dorsal view. 

7d. Side view, 

7c. Portion of the granulated surface, magnified. 

8. Belemnitella quadrata; from the Middle Chalk of Kent, in the collection of 

Mr. Bowerbank. 

8a. Dorsal view, showing the two lateral depressions. 

83. The alveolar opening slightly broken away at the edges. 

9. Belemnitella quadrata ; a young specimen from the Upper Chalk of Northfleet 

in the collection of Mr. Morris, with the two vascular impressions strongly 
marked. 

9^. Dorsal view. 
dd. Lateral view. 

10. Belemnitella quadrata; alveolar opening from above, perfectly preserved. In the 
collection of Mr. Bowerbank. 



Fig. 

11. Bblemnitella QUADRATA ; froiu the Collection of Mr. Bowerbank. 

lla. Section, showing the conical form of the lower part of the alveolar 

opening, and the fissure. 
11^. The same, enlarged. 

12, 13, 14, 15, and 16. Belemnitella plena; from the Grey Chalk, near Dorking. 
12a. Dorsal view. 
125. Upper end, with the lower part of the alveohis preserved. 

13. A young specimen. 

14. Section of a specimen, from which the alveolus is entirely broken off. 
1 5<2. Dorsal view of a specimen, broken off at the apex of the alveolus. 
155. Broken end of the last. 

16. Section of a young specimen. 

17. Bklemnites ultimus; from the Chloritic Marl of Bonchurch in the Isle of Wight, 
in the Collection of Mr. Saxby. 

17(2. Side view. 

175. Ventral view. 

17c. Outline of the opening. 




c> Wejc, m 



PLATE II. 

Fig. 

1. Nautilus ljevigatus; from the Chalk with sUiceous grains of Chardstock, in the 

collection of Mr. Wiest. 

la. Side view. 
Id. Front view. 

2. Nautilus LiEviGATUs, young ; from the Chloritic Marl of Bonchurch, in the col- 

lection of Mr. Saxby. 

2«. Side view. 

26. Front view, showing the position of the siphuncle. 

3. Nautilus expansus ; from the Chalk with siliceous grains of Chardstock, in the 

collection of Mr. Wiest. 

3a. Front view. 
Sd. Side view. 

4. Nautilus expansus, young ; from the Chalk, with siliceous grains of Chardstock, 

in the collection of Mr. Weist. 

4«. Side view. 

4:6. Front view. 

4c. Portion magnified, showing the cross striation. 

5. Nautilus expansus; view of one septum, showing the position of the siphuncle ; 

from Mr. Bunbury's collection. 



V\.l. 









.We.'^l .h/h. 



/vr.i- ■•/. /.. ■ "7 ./' ' Juefn. 



PLATE III. 

Fig. 

1. Nautilus Deslongchampsianus ; from the Grey Chalk near Lewes, in the collection 

of Dr. Mantell. 

la. Side view. 
Id. Back view. 

2. Nautilus Deslongchampsianus ; a fragment somewhat crushed, Avith the cross-rib- 

bing well preserved. From the Grey Chalk, near Lewes. 

3. Nautilus elegans; from the Grey Chalk near Lewes, in the collection of Mr. 

Hudson. 

The smooth part of this specimen has been enclosed in another whorl, which 
is partially broken away. 




■#fe 








-t;:^-^ 



West. in. 



PLATE IV. 

Fig. 

1. Nautilus elegans, reduced to two thirds ; a front view of the inner portion of the 

specimen figured Plate III, fig. 3, showing the position of the siphuncle. 

2. Nautilus pseudo-elegans ; from the Grey Chalk near Lewes, in the collection of 

the Geological Society. 

2a. Side view. 

2b. View of one septum, with the opening for the siphuncle. 



PI. 4. 




G-.W&sl. liih-. 



PLATE V. 

Fig. 

1. Nautilus radiatus ; from the Chalk with siliceous grains of Chardstock, kindly 

given me by Mr. Wiest. 

la. Side view. 

lb. Front view, showing the position of the siphuncle, and the ventral 
depression on the septum. 

2. Nautilus radiatus ; young specimen, with a portion of the cross-striation of the 

young shell preserved. From the Chalk with siliceous grains of Chardstock, 
in the collection of Mr. Morris. 

3. Nautilus Neocomiensis ; from the Grey Chalk of Urchfont near Devises, in the 

collection of Mr. Cunnington. 

3<2. Side view. 

3^. Back view. 

3c. Septum showing the position ol the siphuncle. 

4. Nautilus undulatus ; from the Chalk with siliceous grains of Chardstock, in the 

collection of Mr. Wiest. 

4a. Side view. 

43. Front view. 

4c. Septum showing the position of the siphuncle. 



Fl b. 






4^ '% 



3b 





lb 




'm^ 



3r 



y^'\ 



"'v. 



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r^ 



'lb 




4cb 




I mi 



\ 



4c 



& ^m luh 



PLATE VI. 

Fig. 

1 . Nautilus largilliertianus ; from the Chalk with siliceous grains of Chardstock, in 

the collection of Mr. Wiest. 

la. Side view. 
16. Front view. 

2. Nautilus largilliertianus ; a fragment from the Chalk with siliceous grains of 

Chaldon, in the collection of Mr. Morris. 

2a. Side view, with a commencement of undulation on the back. 
2d. Septum, showing the position of the siphuncle. 

3. Nautilus Fleuriausianus ; from the Chalk with siliceous grains of Chardstock, in 

the collection of Mr. Wiest. 
Sa. Side view. 
33. Front view. 

4. Nautilus Fittoni; from the Chalk with siliceous grains of Chardstock, in the 

collection of Mr. Wiest. 

4«. Side view. 

43. Back view. 

4c. Septum showing the position of the siphuncle. 



J '1.0 





%k 





4^CL 



3- IT^b HtJly 



PLATE VII. 



Fig. :?', c«)Yir\SC?'> 

1 — 3. Ammonites complanatus. 



1 . From the Grey Chalk of Hamsey ; in the British Museum, from the col- 

lection of Dr. Mantell ; the original specimen figured, t. 569, of the 
' Mineral Conchology/ reduced to half its diameter. 

la. Side view. 
1 b. Front view. 

2. A young specimen of the natural size ; in the British Museum, from the 

collection of Dr. Mantell. 

3. Outline of the margin of a septum, copied from pi. xcv of the 'Paleont. 

Fran9aise Terrains Cretacees.' 

dl. The dorsal lobe. 

s IL The superior lateral lobe. 

i 1 1. The inferior lateral lobe. 
a a a. Auxiliary lobes. 

s d. The dorsal saddle. 

/ s. The lateral saddle. 

t. The position of the siphuncle on the middle of the back. 

4. Ammonites obtectus; from the Chalk with siliceous grains of Chardstock, in the 
collection of Mr. Wiest. 

4a. Side view. 
43. Front view. 

4c. Portion of the outline of a septum, only extending to the 
lateral saddle. 

5 — 9. Ammonites falcatus. 

5. From the Grey Chalk of the Clayton Tunnel, on the Brighton Railway, in 

the collection of Mr. Catt. 
6a and b. From the Chloritic Marl of Gore Cliff, Isle of Wight, in the 

collection of ]\Ir. Saxby. 
la and b. A specimen in the collection of Mr. Morris, from the Chalk with 

siliceous grains of Chaldon. 
8a and b. From the Chloritic Marl of Bonchurch, Isle of Wight ; in the 

collection of Mr. Saxby. 
9. Outline of a septum of a young specimen. 



PL Ml. 



r. 






r"m> 






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^. 



^i^ 
^ 









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/v--- 





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DaykSon, Lith ''/v cfir(ktMn^ 



PLATE VIIL 

Fig- -•^WicVoC^ve' " 

1 — 4. Ammonites Coupei. 

voA '•« ^J'-o-'.o. la and d. Tuberculated variety; from the Chloritic Marl of Bonchurch, 

Isle of Wight, in the collection of Mr. Saxby. 

2a and d. Commonest of the species ; from the Chalk with siliceous grains 
of Chardstock, in the collection of Mr. Wiest. 

2c. Outline of the septum of a young specimen of the tuberculated variety. 

3. Outhne of the septum of the specimen, fig. 2a. 

va^. , ^.•*-^'^^' ^ 4 Tuberculated variety, young; from the Chalk with sihceous grains of 

Chardstock, in the collection of Mr. Morris. The lateral tubercles 
have been partially rubbed off. 

5 — 10. Ammonites varians. 

ycun s^-U'! 5(2, 6, and c. Common form of the species; from the Chalk with siliceous 

grains of Chardstock, in the collection of Mr. Morris. 

6a and d. Broken specimen of the same variety as fig. 5, showing the 
form of the shell when young ; from the Chalk with 
siliceous grains of Chaldon, in the collection of Mr. Morris. 

7a and b. Ribbed variety with obsolete lateral tubercles; from the Chalk 
with siliceous grains of Chardstock, in the collection of 
Mr. Morris. 

V ' Sa and d. Another variety ; from the Chalk with siliceous grains near 

Lyme Regis. 

9a and d. Smooth variety; from the Chalk with siliceous grains of 
Chardstock, in the collection of Mr. Wiest. 

lOa, 6, and c. Young specimen of a smooth variety; from the Chloritic 
Marl of Bonchurch, Isle of Wight. 



I'LMU. 





M 



lb 



I 



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lb - 






M 




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I>a,¥&SonJ,i(JCtcTke qt^eer. 



PLATE IX. 

la and ^. Ammonites Coupei ; from the Grey Chalk near Devizes, in the collection of 
Mr. Cunnington. 

'2a and d. Ammonites cinctus ; from the Grey Chalk of Middleham, in the British 
Museum, from the collection of Dr. Mantell : the original specimen de- 
scribed by Dr. Mantell, and figured in the ' Mineral Conchology,' pi. 564. 

Sa, 6, and c. Ammonites Bunburianus ; from the Chalk with siliceous grains of Chard- 
stock, in the Museum of Practical Geology, from the collection of Mr. 
Bunbury. 



PL IX. 





. '*. 



-^ 





Ji. ■^:'{ifjiy 



2i 




3 

Jo 





lf< 






^ ^e>, <ir/^ 



])ayASmJ.tt^ '^focke^ssn 






PLATE 11. 

Fig- 

1. The brachial aponeurosis and spiral arms of Terehratula Jlavescens, showing the 

central part of the nervous system, with the brachial and beginning of the 
pallial nerves. Magnified 6 diameters. 

2. The peduncle and a large proportion of the soft parts of Terehratula Jlavescens. 

showing the principal ramifications of- the pallial nerves or the dorso-pallial fold 
of the mantle. Magnified 12 diameters^ 

3. Some of the soft parts of Lingula anatina, exposed by the removal of the valve and 

pallial lobe, answering to the ventral ones in Terehratula, and of the digestive 
organs, chiefly to show the trunks of the visceral and muscular nerves. 
Magnified 4 diameters. 



3d 



I 



*. 



PL.\ 



Jh 




DcwLSmJAffC'loXkeiu^^- 



PLATE XI. 

Fig. •, > i^-, f , ' ' - 

la and b. Ammonites Woollgari ; from the Grey Chalk near Lewes ; the original 
specimen in Dr. Mantell's collection, figured in his work, and in the 
* Mineral Conchology,' and now in the British Museum. The portions 
marked R are restored by the artist. 

2a and b. Ammonites Woollgari ; a young specimen from the Middle Chalk near Lewes ; 
in the collection of Henry Catt, Esq., of Brighton. 

Sa, h, and c. Ammonites Griffithii ; internal cast from the Hard Chalk of the County 
of Derry ; fig. 3« has been completed in the inner whorls from another 
specimen, and fig. 3c drawn from a third specimen, all in the collection 
of the Museum of Practical Geology, in London. 



Plate XI 




Krit.W«t iBf 



PLATE XII. 

Fig. 

la and 6. Ammonites Austeni ; reduced to one third its natural diameter ; from the Grey 

Chalk of Guildford ; in the British Museum. 

2. Ammonites Austeni ; a young specimen, reduced to one half its diameter; from the 

Grey Chalk of Sussex ; in the collection of Henry Catt, Esq. 

3. Ammonites planulatus ; from the Grey Chalk near Lewes ; formerly in the collection 

of Dr. Mantell, and now in the British Museum ; it is the original 
specimen figured in the ' Mineral Conchology ;' the parts marked R are 
restored by the artist. 

4a, 6, and c. Ammonites pi-anulatus ; an internal cast from the Upper Green Sand near 
Cambridge ; in the collection of Mr. L. Barrett. 



°latP XII 



\ 




'K 



v*«s5;^'->--. 



.^ 



, ^■-^'fP^'^l, ■>. 




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Gf. "ire.st liti 



r<»ikw»iiBf 



PLATE XIII. 

Fig. 

la and 6. Ammonites catinus; reduced to one half its diameter; from the Grey Chalk 

near Devizes ; in the collection of William Cunnington; Esq., of that 

town. 

2 and Sa, b, c. Ammonites Portlocki ; from the Hard Chalk of Tamlaght, in the County 
of Derry ; in the Museum of Practical Geology, London. 

rs e u 3.0. S p( Slo <■ e V CVS 

4g, b, and c. Ammonites euomphalus ; from the base of the Lower Chalk at Man of War 
Cove, Dorsetshire ; in the collection of E. H. Bunbury, Esq. 



Plate Xili 




In 



'.a„>,. 




Gr.o.WMt.Lt3i. 



^^i I *-~i \m 



PLATE XIV. 

1« and h. Ammonites laticlavius; from the Grey Chalk of Bonchurch, in the Isle of 
Wight; in my possession. 

2a, h, and c. Ammonites Oldhami ; from the Hard Chalk of Dungivan, in the County of 
Derry ; in the Museum of Practical Geology, London, The surface of 
the original was waterworn, and has been a good deal restored in the 
drawing. 

3a and h. Ammonites leptonema ; from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, in the Isle of Wight ; 
in my possession. 



J^ 






W M 






(^ 



m- 



V ;,-", 





# 



^^ 



^ 







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^^^txii^j^i^ " - 







I 



I 



PLATE XV. 

Fig- At^*^tV.of^Y<*5 

1*7, b, c, and d. Ammonites Sussexiensis ; a specimen given me by Dr. Mantell, from the 

Grey Chalk near Lewes ; reduced to two thirds its natural diameter. 

2a, b, and c. Ammonites Cunningtoni ; from a specimen belonging to T. A. Falkner, 
Esq., of Manningford, reduced to two thirds its natural diameter ; from 
the Grey Chalk of Upton Scudamore, near Warminster. 



PI XV 




I 



I 



PLATE XVI. 

Fig. PAf'rsCc.v ry ■-- 

la, b, and c. Ammonites Rhotomagensis ; from the Grey Chalk of Bonchurch, in the 

Isle of Wight; reduced to two thirds its natural diameter; in my 

possession. 

1(2 and \b. Side and front views of the complete specimen. 
\c. Inner whorl of the same specimen. 

2a and b. Ammonites Rhotomagensis ; from the Grey Chalk of Bonchurch ; of the 
natural size ; in my possession. 

3^ and b. Ammonites Rhotomagensis ; a very young specimen, from the Grey Chalk of 
Bonchurch ; in my possession. 

4. Ammonites Rhotomagensis; outline of the septum of a specimen from the Grey Chalk 
near Lewes. 



I 




Geo."WttstJ2th 



Y^rrd. hr iVoft IfflD 



^i^l ueVs 



PLATE XVII. 

Fig. 

la and d. Ammonites Cenomanensis; from the Grey Chalk of Dover; reduced to two 

thu'ds its natural diameter; in the collection of J. S. Bowerbank, Esq., 

p. 37. 
la, side view. 
16, front view. 

2. Ammonetes hippocastanum ; from the Lower Chalk of Man of War Cove, Dorsetshire ; 
in the collection of E. H. Bunbury, Esq., p. 37. 

3a and d. Ammonites hippocastanum, young; from the Lower Chalk of Chardstock ; in 
the collection of E. H. Bunbury, Esq., p. 37. 
3a, side view. 
3(5, front view. 

4a, 6, and c. Ammonites hippocastanum ; a fragment, from the Lower Chalk of Chard- 
stock ; in the collection of E. H. Bunbury, Esq., p. 37. 
4a, back view. 
4d, side view. 
4c, outline of a septum. 

5a and b. Ammonites Goupilianus ; from the Lower Chalk of Sussex ; in the British 
Museum, from the collection of Dr. Mantell, p. 38. 

6. Ammonites Goupilianus ; outline of a septum, copied from PI. xciv of M. D'Orbigny's 
' Paleont. Franp. Terr. Cret.,' p. 38. 

7a and b. Ammonites Velled^e ; from the Upper Chalk near Norwich ; in the collection 
of F. G. Bayfield, Esq., of Norwich, p. 39. 
7a, side view. n.b. The umbilicus is represented too large, the artist having 

been deceived by the breaking away of the soft chalk. 
7b, front view. 



Plate XVIf 




4^ 






4-c 



firm£WM^ 





-~0m^.;i.r ^J ^'^-j 



k 






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S b 







C»c'vVf?LlK> 



rr>r4 tVVVj' hiip 



I 



PLATE XVIII. 

1. Ammonites NAvicuLARis ; from the Grey Chalk of White Nore, Dorsetshire; in the 

collection of E. H. Bunbury, Esq., p. 39. 

2. Ammonites navicularis ; from the Grey Chalk near Lewes ; in the collection of 

Henry Catt, Esq., p. 39. ' 

3« and b. Ammonites navicularis ; from the Lower Chalk of Chardstock; in the collec- 
tion of John Morris, Esq., p. 39. 
3«, front view. 
3i, side view. 

|a»\1ei1ice.ros couloai/ \a and h. Ammonite s Mantelli ; from the Grey Chalk of Boncburch, Isle of Wight ; in 

the collection of S. Saxby, jun., Esq., p. 40. 
^a, side view. 
45, front view. 

J-, A. iV''--'>'*'Vo.sv».': ' 5^^ jj^ and c. Ammonites navicularis; from the Lower Chalk of Chardstock; in the 

collection of John Morris, Esq., p. 39. 
5«, side view. 
5(5, front view. 
^ Qe^f^'W ^^' f^'o^^ vi^^ ®^ t^^ inner whorl of the same specimen. 

6« and h. A^tMONtTEs Mantelli; from the Chloritic Marl of the Isle of Wight; in the 
collection of John Morris, Esq., p. 40. 
6a, side view. 
6<5, front view. 

Mtt.w'VeTl.cev-emS 

la, b, and c. kMmmv^^ Mantelli ; from the Chloritic Marl of Bonchurcb, Isle of 
Wight ; in the collection of S. Saxby, jun., Esq., p. 40. 
la, side view. 
lb, front view. 
Ic, outline of septum. 

8. Ammonites* navicularis; outline of the septum of the specimen fig. 1, above. 



Plate XVlIf. 




Geo.Wesi iil>. 



1 m-i t War. imp 



I 



PLATE XIX. 

Fig. 1 M sV W (p Wo tev<v s 

la, h, and c. Ammonites Coupei ; var., from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; 
in my possession, p. 23. 

1<2, side view. 

\h, back view. 

Ic, section of a whorl. 

v 2a, b, and c. Ammonites Renauxianus ; a young shell, from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, 

' , ^«^' Isle of Wight; in my possession, p. 41. 

^,, ^V«\*''^^ ^^ 2«, side view. 

2b, back view. 
3c, front view of inner whorl of the same specimen. 

2>a and b. Ammonites octo-sulcatus ; from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; 
in my possession, p. 42. 
3«, side view, 
2>b, front view. 

4a and b. Ammonites Icenicus ; from the Upper Chalk, near Norwich; in the collection 
of Mr. King of Norwich, p. 43. 
4a, side view, showing the outline of a septum. 
4^j front view. 

5a and ^. Ammonites Deveri anus ; from the Grey Chalk of Sussex; in the British 
Museum, from the collection of F. Dixon, Esq., p. 43. 
5a, side view. 
55, front view. 

6. Ammonites Veiled^; from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight; in my pos- 
session, p. 39. 
6, outline of a septum. 



PUteXIX 



I 




u-v V/.-t V 



IvilJLVfciSt in). 



PLATE XX. 



Fig. 



^^ ^-■'hft.^^<1 flk*^*^^ ^•^'^ 



la, h, c. Ammonites rusticus ; from the Lower Chalk, near Lyme Regis ; in the Museum 
of Practical Geology ; reduced to two thirds its natural diameter, p. 44. 
The surface of the inner part has decayed away. 

la, side view. 

Id, back view. 

Ic, section of the outer whorl. 

T^w^j^f 2«, 6, and c. Ammonites Renevieri; from the Grey Chalk, near Blackdown, Isle of 

4 — Qc»->»vk,srct-cv?^ HvfoJt Wight; in the collection of E. Renevier, Esq., of Lausanne, p. 44. 

2a, side view. 
26, front view. 
2c, outline of a septum. 



3« and d. Ammonites Saxbii ; from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; in my 
possession, p. 45 
Sa, side view. 
S6, front view. 



4a and d. Ammonites Vectensis ; from the Chloritic Marl of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; in 
my possession, p. 45. 
4«, side view. 
4:5, front view. 



PlaLeXX 



4 




PLATE XXI. 

Fig. -ovAC 

\a, h, c. Ammonites Lewesiensis; from the Grey Chalk, uear Dover; in the collection 
of S. J. Mackie, Esq., of Folkstone, p. 46. 
la, side view. 
lb, front view. 
Ic, outline of a septum. 

2. Ammonites leptophyllus ; outline of a septum of the specimen, Plate XXII, fig. 1. 

3«, b, c. Ammonites Wiestii; from the Chalk with silicious grains, Chardstock, 
Somersetshire; in the collection of J. Wiest, Esq., p. 47. 
Sa, side view. 
3d, back view. 
3c, section of a whorl. 



PlaLeXII 







Ce Wetl4.ifii 



>arafcWo3l Imp 



I 



t 



I 



PLATE XXII. 

Fig- 
la, h. Ammonites leptophyllus ; from the Upper Chalk of Greenhithe, Kent; in the 
collection of L. Barrett, Esq., reduced to two fifths its natural diameter, 
p. 48. 
1«, side view. 
\b, front view. 

'la, h, c. Ammonites Gollevillensis ; from the hard Chalk of Damlaght, in the county 
of Derry, Ireland ; in the Museum of Practical Geology ; reduced to 
three fourths its natural diameter, p. 48. 

2«, side view. 

2h, front view. 

2c, outline of a septum. 



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PLATE XXIII. 

Fif:. 

\a, h, c. Ammonites curvatus ; from the Grey Chalk of Veutnor, Isle of Wight; in my 
possession, p. 49. 
l«, side view. 
13, front view. 
l: ^ ' 1 c, outline of a septum. 

2. Ammonites falcatus ; outline of the septum of a specimen from the Chloritic Marl of 

Ventnor, Isle of Wight; in my possession, p. 21. 
3<7, b, c. Ammonites Salteri; from the Chalk with siliceous grains, Chardstock, 
Somersetshire ; in the collection of J. Wiest, Esq., p. 50. 
3fl, side view. 
"db, front view. 
3c, outline of a septum. 
4«, b, c. Ammonites Ramsayanus ; from the Chalk with siliceous grains, Chardstock, 
Somersetshire; in the collection of J. Wiest, Esq., p. 51. 
4«, view of the left side. 
43, view of the right side. 
4c, front view. 

ha, b. Ammonites Salteri ; from the Chalk with siliceous grains, Chardstock, Somerset- 
shire; in the collection of J. Wiest, Esq., p. 50. 
5<2, side view. 
53, front view. 

6a, 3, c. Ammonites Feraudianus; from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight; in 
my possession, p. 52. 
6<a;, side view. 
63, front view. 
6c, back view. 

la, 3. Ammonites Bravaisianus ; copied from Plate XCI, figs. 3 and 4, of D'Orbigny's 
' Paleontologie Fran^aise, Terrains Cretaces.' p. 52. 

8. Ammonites Bravaisianus; from the Middle Chalk of Dover; in the collection of 

of S. J. Mackie, Esq. : the specimen has been worn, and the tubercles 
are nearly all rubbed off, p. 52. 

9. Ammonites Bravaisianus; from the Middle Chalk of Dover; in the collection of 

J. W. Flower: restored by the artist from a broken specimen, p. 52. 

10<2, 3, c. Ammonites Wiltonensis; from the Grey Chalk, near Devizes, W^iltshire; in 
the collection of W. Cunnington, Esq., of Devizes, p. 53. 
10(2, side view. 
103, front view. 
10c, outline of a septum. 

\\a, b, c, d, e. Ammonites Jukesii ; from the hard Chalk of the county of Londonderry ; 
in the Museum of Practical Geology, p. 53. 
\\a, side view of a fragment, with part of three whorls. 
113, side view of the two inner whorls of 11a. 
lie, back view of 113. 
\\d, section of the whorls restored, 
lie, part of the outline of a septum. 



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PLATE XXIV. 

Fig. i 

\a, h. Apttchus leptophyllus ; from the Upper Chalk of Brighton; in Mr. Sharpens 
collection (Geol. Soc), p. 55. 

\a, concave (internal) surface. 

1^, smooth, convex surface. 

2, 3, 4. Aptychus Portlockii ; from the Upper Chalk of Norwich ; 2 and 3 in the col- 
lection of Mr. Bayfield ; 4 in the British Museum, p. 56. 

5. Aptychus Gollevillensis ; Upper Chalk, Norwich; in the collection of Mr. Bayfield, 

p. 56. 

6. Aptychus Portlockii ? p. 56. 

7. Aptychus Icenicus ; Upper Chalk, Norwick; Mr. Bayfield, p. 57. 

8a, h, and 9. Aptychus rugosus; Upper Chalk, Norwich, p. 57. 

8a, external, sculptured surface of a pair of valves ; in the collection of Mr. 

Bayfield, p. 57. 
8d, internal surface, showing lines of growth. 
9, external surface of a large valve, in the collection of Mr. John King, of 

Norwich, p. 57. 

10a, h. Aptychus peramplus; Upper Chalk, Norwich; Mr. Bayfield, p. 58. 
10a. internal, striated surface. 
105, external surface of a fragment. 

11. Outline of the aperture of Ammonites Icenicus. 

12. „ „ A. Portlockii. 

13. „ „ A. leptophyllus. 

14. „ „ A. peramplus. 

15. „ „ A. Gollevillensis. 



PI XXIV 




PLATE XXV. 

Fig. 

1. TuRRiLiTES TUBERCULATUS ; from the Grey Chalk of Ringmer, Sussex; in the British 

Museum, from the collection of Dr. Mantell, p. 61. 

2. TuRRiLiTEs TUBERCULATUS, showiug the produced mouth; from the Grey Chalk, near 

Lewes; in the British Museum, from the collection of Dr. Mantell, p. 61. 

3. TuRRiLiTES TUBERCULATUS ; a fragment, showing the position of the lobes of a septum 

on the outer side of a whorl ; from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight, in 
my possession, p. 61. 

4. TuRRiLiTES TUBERCULATUS ; a youug Specimen, from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle 

of Wight; in the collection of S. Saxby, jun., Esq., p. 61. 

5. TuRRiLiTEs Mantelli ; from the Grey Chalk, near Lewes ; part of the outline of a 

septum is shown on the upper whorl ; in the British Museum, from the collection 
of Dr. Mantell, p. 63. 

6a, b. TuRRiLiTEs Mantelli ; from the Grey Chalk, near Lewes ; an adult individual, 
showing the produced mouth ; in the British Museum, from the collection of Dr. 
Mantell, p. 63. 

la, b. TuRRTLiTEs Gravesianus ; from the Grey Chalk, near Lewes ; the position of the 
lobes of a septum is shown on the lower whorl of fig. la ; in the British Museum, 
from the collection of Dr. Mantell, p. 62. 



Plate XXV 




PLATE XXVI. 

Fig. 

1. TuRRiLiTKs ScHEUCHZERiANUS; adult, with the luouth produced; from the Grey Chalk 

of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; in my possession, p. 64. 

2. TuRRiLiTEs ScHEUCHZERiANUS; a young shell, on which part of the produced mouth 

IS preserved ; from the Grey Chalk of Veutnor, Isle of Wight ; in my possession", 
p. 64. 

3. TuRRiLiTES ScHEUCHZERiANUS ? a Very young shell, with the produced mouth com- 

pletely formed ; from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of AVight ; in my posses- 
sion, p. 64. 

4. oa, b, 6, la, b, and 8. Turrilites Morrisii; five specimens of different ages; from 

the Chloritic Marl of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; in my possession, p. 65. 
5^, shows the base of the whorl of ha. 
lb, is the outline of the septum of la. 

9. Turrilites Bergeri ; a fragment, showing part of the outline of a septum ; from the 

Chloritic Marl of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; in my possession, p. 65. 

10. Turrilites Bergeri; a fragment, from, the Grey Chalk, near Lewes ; in the British 

Museum, from the collection of Dr. Mantell, p. 65. 

11. Turrilites Bergeri; fragment of a young shell; from the Chalk with siliceous 

grains, Chardstock, Somersetshire ; in the collection of J. Morris, Esq., p. 65. 

12. a, b. Turrilites, species undetermined ; the last whorl of an adult shell, with the mouth 

produced ; from the Grey Chalk of Lewes ; in the British Museum, from the 
collection of Dr. Mantell. 

13«, b. Turrilites Bechei; from the Chalk with siliceous grains, near Lyme Regis; 
part of the outline of a septum is seen on the second whorl ; presented to the 
British Museum by the late Sir H. T. de la Beche, p. QQ. 

14 Turrilites Gravesianus; outline of part of a septum. 

15. Turrilites tuberculatus ; outline of part of a septum. 

10. Turrilites tuberculatus ; outline of part of a septum; from the Chloritic Marl of 
Bonchurch, Isle of W^ight ; in the collection of S. Saxby, jun., Esq., p. 61. 



Plate :x/i 




FniliLWMt In^ 



PLATE XXVII. 

Fig. 

1. TuRRiLiTES cosTATUS; young, from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight; in 
my possession, p. 66. 

2a, h. TuRRiLiTEs cosTATDs ; adult, with the mouth completely formed ; from the Grey 
Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; in my possession, p. 66. 
2a, side view. 
%h, view of the base, with the perfect mouth. 

3 and 4. Tdrrilites costatus ; two small specimens which have already formed the 
produced mouth; from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight; in my 
possession, p. 66. 

5. TuRRiLiTES COSTATUS ; young, from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; in 
my possession, p. 66. 

6 and 7. Turrilites bifrons ? D'Orb. ; from the Lower Chalk, Ventnor, p. 67. 

8. Turrilites Wiestii ; from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; in my posses- 
sion, p. 67. 

9a, d. Turrilites Wiestii ; young, from the Chalk with siliceous grains, Chardstock, 
Somersetshire; in the collection of Mr. John Morris, p. 67. 
9<2, side view. 
96, base of a whorl. 

10. Turrilites Bergeri? var.; from the Chloritic Marl of Bonchurch, Isle of Wight. 

{Mr. Saxby.) 

11. Turrilites Puzosianus, D'Orb. var. ; from the Chloritic Marl of Bonchurch, p. 68. 

12. Turrilites costatus, var. ; from the Lower Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight. 

13. Turrilites tuberculatus, var. ; from the Lower Chalk of Ventnor. 

These two figures (12, 13) are doubtfully referred to the above species, and 
may hereafter prove to be distinct : the specimens are only fragments, and in 
an imperfect state of preservation. 

14a, b. Turrilites Wiestii, var. ; from the Lower Chalk of Ventnor. 

15. Turrilites costatus, var. T. triplicatus, J. Sow. ; Lower Chalk, Sussex; from the 

original in the British Museum, p. 66. 

16. Septum of T. costatm, p. 66. 

17. Septum of T. Wiestii, p. 67. 



?1 XIVII 




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